Diplomas Count - Issue 34, 2013 - (Page 28)

EDUCATION WEEK JUNE 6, 2013 Diplomas Count > www.edweek.org/go/dc13 n 28 | How Does the EPE Research Center Calculate Graduation Rates? Sources and Notes DEFINING READINESS College-readiness definition: The state has formal expectations for what students will need to know and be able to do in order to be admitted to state’s two-year and/or four-year institutions and enroll in credit-bearing courses. State approaches to defining college readiness have been classified into the following categories: courses, skills, standards, and tests. Some states’ definitions may include elements that do not fall into categories established for this analysis. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey (2012-13 school year), 2012. Work-readiness definition: K-12 education system has formal expectations for what high school students will need to know and be able to do in order to be prepared for work. State approaches to defining work readiness have been classified into the following categories: courses, skills, standards, and tests. Some states’ definitions may include elements that do not fall into categories established for this analysis. Ibid. Distinct definitions of readiness: K-12 education system has different definitions of college readiness and work readiness. Ibid. HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION CREDENTIALS Credits to earn standard diploma: Credit requirements are expressed in Carnegie units unless otherwise specified. One Carnegie unit is equivalent to one year of coursework. Credits reflect minimum or default course requirements mandated by state for standard high school diploma. Education Commission of the States, Standard High School Graduation Requirements (2012-13 school year), 2013. Standard-diploma options: Indicates types of regular diplomas issued by state: standard, college preparatory, and/or careertechnical specialization. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey (2012-13 school year), 2012. Advanced recognition for exceeding standard requirements: State offers advanced diploma or other form of recognition for students who exceed requirements of standard diploma by completing additional coursework, achieving high grade point average (GPA), or other accomplishments. Ibid. Focus for advanced recognition: State awards honors for accomplishments in core academic subjects and/or accomplishments in career-technical program. Ibid. Basis for advanced recognition: State awards honors for accomplishments in one or more of the following areas: courses, GPA, and tests. Some states have requirements that do not fall into categories used in this analysis. Ibid. Alternative credential for not meeting all standard requirements: State offers credential, such as certificate of attendance, for students not meeting criteria for standard diploma. Ibid. Basis for alternative credential: State offers alternative credential for students with disabilities or those young people failing exit exams, although other students may be eligible in some states. Ibid. Industry certificate or license: State offers high school students option of participating in career or technical program or pathway that leads to industry-recognized certificate or license. Ibid. HIGH SCHOOL EXIT EXAMS State has exit exam: State requires that students pass exit exam or one or more end-of-course exams in order to graduate. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey (2012-13 school year), 2012. Subjects tested: Academic subject areas covered on state exit exams. Ibid. Exam based on standards for 10th grade or higher: State has exit exam(s) aligned to state 10th-grade standards or higher in at least one academic subject. This includes exams that cover standards from 9th to 11th grades or end-of-course exams for courses that are typically taken in 10th grade or above. Ibid. Financing for remediation: State provides at least partial financial support for remediation of students who fail exit exams. Ibid. Appeals process or alternative route: State allows students to appeal after failing exit exam or has alternative route students can take to earn standard diploma. Ibid. Diplomas Count uses the Cumulative Promotion Index (CPI) method to calculate high school graduation rates for American public schools. This approach allows the EPE Research Center to compute the percent of public high school students who graduate on time with a diploma. The CPI method represents the high school experience as a process rather than an event, capturing the four key steps a student must take in order to graduate: three grade-to-grade promotions (9 to 10, 10 to 11, and 11 to 12) and ultimately earning a diploma (grade 12 to graduation). Each of these individual components corresponds to a grade-promotion ratio. Multiplying these four grade-specific promotion ratios together produces the graduation rate. Different methods for calculating a graduation rate may employ different definitions of a “graduate.” The CPI method adheres to federal guidelines and only counts students receiving standard high school diplomas as graduates. Recipients of General Educational Development diplomas, certificates of attendance, and other nondiploma credentials are treated as nongraduates in this context. The 2013 edition of Diplomas Count presents a new analysis of graduation rates with a focus on the high school class of 2010, the most recent year for which information is available. The CPI analysis is based primarily on data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data (CCD), an annual census of all public schools and school districts in the country. In rare situations where key data points are not available on a statewide basis from the CCD, the EPE Research Center obtains comparable graduation data directly from the state education agencies. The Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics, which manages the CCD, periodically releases updated versions of CCD data files that incorporate revisions or corrections submitted by the states. Every year, the EPE Research Center recomputes its full historical CPI analysis to reflect any revised data released since the prior edition of Diplomas Count. Such data revisions are typically minor and do not substantively change CPI results as previously reported. However, during summer 2012, the NCES engaged in a significant quality review of CCD data from the 2009-10 and 2010-11 school years. The review identified numerous irregularities, which the states were asked to address as part of an amended data release. In at least some cases, the revisions were large enough to produce noticeable changes in previously published cpi results for the class of 2009, including some state and national statistics. The EPE Research Center calculates graduation rates for school districts that issue diplomas (i.e., those with a 12th grade). To provide fuller and more representative coverage of the student population, the center used a multivariate statistical model to impute 2010 graduation rates for certain districts where a directly calculated rate was not available. Statistics for the nation and states are generated by aggregating district-level data upward. TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS Education Week DIGITAL DIRECTIONS From the publishers of Education Week, Digital Directions is designed to help you create the right technology solutions for your school! More than ever, administrators and educational technology leaders need reliable information and resources to guide the technology decisionmaking process. Digital Directions provides you with the advice, tips and tools you want, in a format you can use. Visit us online at www.digitaldirections.org to register for your FREE subscription! http://www.edweek.org/go/dc13 http://www.digitaldirections.org http://www.digitaldirections.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Diplomas Count - Issue 34, 2013

Diplomas Count - Issue 34, 2013
Contents
A ‘Neglected’ Population Goes Back to School
Age Can Determine Access To Free Education, Diploma Pathways
State Statistics and Strategies
High School Equivalency Test Gets a Makeover
Reasons to Stay: Tailored Interventions
Online Providers Find a Market In Returning Dropouts
Second-Chance Challenge: Keeping Students in School
A Chicago Charter Network Stanches The Flow of Dropouts
Sound-Engineering Class Hooks Reluctant Student
Teenage Father Makes Journey From Dropout to Top Student
Honor Student Disconnects, Re-engages at CCA
Graduation Rate Approaching Milestone
TABLE: Graduation in the United States
DATA: Detailed Analytic Portrait
TABLE: Graduation Policies For the Class of 2013
Sources and Notes

Diplomas Count - Issue 34, 2013

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