Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 4

The Surprising Connection Between Universal
School Meals and Student Discipline
Free meals also appear to reduce
bullying and end stigma among
low-income students
By Arianna Prothero
For Raniya Fisher, a senior at
Ridgeland High School in Mississippi,
lunchtime is about more than
eating-it's a time to recharge and
build relationships.
Raniya, who plays basketball, eats
in the gym with her teammates as a
way to build team cohesion. But she
still goes to the cafeteria for a free
meal, where she looks forward to her
daily chats with the lunch ladies.
Raniya qualifies for free- and reduced-priced
lunch, but she knows
people at her school who don't and
struggle to afford lunch. She thinks
school meals should be free for everyone.
" If
you don't eat at lunch you are
just starving, and little things like
that are a distraction, " she said. " The
teacher could ask you one simple
question, and you get mad, and you
could get in it with the teacher because
you didn't eat lunch! You might
be a little sleepy, but [when] you're
full, you're in a positive attitude and
ready to do your work. "
Now, a body of research supports
the idea that giving free school meals
to all students can be an important
ingredient to nurturing a healthy
school climate. Among new significant
findings: The policy is linked
to lower discipline rates among students
because it reduces the stigma
around receiving subsidized meals.
Whether it's from the sustenance
or the sense of community they provide,
universal lunch appears to support
many of the factors that make
for a positive school climate, such as
reducing discipline rates, tamping
down on bullying, improving attendance,
and alleviating the stigma for
students from low-income families.
" There is a very important social
dimension, which is when you are
in the lunchroom, [universal meals]
take away this mechanism of pointing
out who is poor, " said Amy
Schwartz, a professor in the Joseph
R. Biden School of Public Policy and
Administration at the University of
Delaware. " Instead, you say, 'we're
at school, we eat together, and this is
what we eat.' "
Students who are hungry have a
harder time paying attention, and are
more likely to act up in class, which
affects both their ability to learn and
behave, said Schwartz, who has studied
the effects of universal free school
meal programs in New York City. And
there are a lot of students whose families
make too much money to qualify
for free- and reduced-priced meals
but still struggle to afford food.
Taking away that stigma of qualifying
for free and reduced priced meals
may also drive down discipline rates.
Students-and teachers-can
usually figure out who is getting
subsidized meals from school, said
Thurston Domina, a professor at the
University of North Carolina's school
of education.
" We've got good research to suggest
that students see that and that
they associate school meals with poverty, "
Domina said. " And we've got
good research to suggest that stigma
associated with poverty carries with
students throughout the school day. "
Changing behavior-and
perceptions
To isolate whether the stigma of
receiving free and reduced-priced
meals played a role in discipline rates,
Domina and researchers from the U.S.
Census Bureau examined schools in
Oregon, comparing those that started
offering universal free school meals
through the federal school meals program's
community eligibility provision
to those that did not. By linking
school data on free and reduced-price
lunch enrollment and discipline referrals
to data from the census and tax
records, they were able to get a granular
look at how the policy affected different
students.
Complicating matters, students
who do qualify for free or subsidized
meals may not be receiving them,
and, conversely, sometimes students
whose families are too wealthy to
qualify still end up enrolled in the federal
meal program.
Providing universal free meals had
the biggest effect on discipline rates,
lowering them among kids who had
received free- and reduced-priced
meals prior to the adoption of the
policy, and regardless of whether they
were actually low-income or not, Domina
said. That means it's likely that
removing the stigma of being labeled
a poor kid is what drove down suspensions
among those kids.
Removing that label may affect
students' behavior, he said, but it can
also change teachers' perceptions of
their students, leading to fewer suspensions.
In
Domina's view, " I think our findings
are really encouraging for efforts
to get free meals to more students, "
he said. " I think getting nutrition into
kids' bodies is just a good thing for
a society to do. And I think that our
research suggests that doing so can
help create happier and healthier and
more egalitarian social environments
in schools. "
Universal free school meals can also
help improve attendance rates, said
Schwartz, for a couple of different reasons:
Attending and eating at school
means families spend less money on
groceries at home. A positive lunchroom
experience free of stigma contributes
to a better social experience
overall, which means they might be
more likely to be engaged in school
and show up, Schwartz said.
" This isn't the solution to our attendance
problem, this isn't the silver
bullet, but you expect that it would
help. Free school meals are the gift
that keeps on giving in a bunch of different
dimensions, " she said.
Additional research has found that
universal free lunches may reduce bullying.
And all of that contributes to a
positive school climate, Schwartz said.
Chris Young, the principal of North
Country Union High School in rural
Vermont, can't think of a particular
instance of a student getting bullied
for eating school meals, but his sense
is that students internalized the label
that they were poor.
" It would be hard to connect what a
student is feeling to any behaviors-it
could go either way, " he said. " They
might act out, but they might be much
more likely to be withdrawn and go
into their shell. "
Kids who didn't qualify for free
school meals often brought leftovers
from home or went out for fast food,
while students from low-income families
sat in the lunchroom with cafeteria
trays, Young said.
But now his school provides free
breakfast and lunch to all students regardless
of income. Vermont is among
a small number of states, including
California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts,
that adopted universal free
school meals following the pandemic.
Using the lunchroom to improve
school climate
Now that meals are free for all students,
even those kids who can afford
to eat out usually opt for the free meal,
Young said.
" Kids are like, oh, well, if the meal
is free, I'm just doing [that], " he said,
and it's improving the school's culture.
" It's much more of a community
when more kids are taking advantage
of the school lunch program. "
Young has leveraged the lunchroom
in other ways to bolster his schools'
climate. When students returned to
full-time in-person learning followWHAT
THE
RESEARCH SAYS
Inconsistent Sleep Patterns
In High School Linked
To Academic Struggles
By Sarah D. Sparks
From homework and studying to sports, clubs, and parttime
jobs, students often maintain packed and constantly
shifting schedules in high school. But those schedules can
keep students from getting to bed at a consistent time.
New research in Sleep, the peer-reviewed journal of the
Sleep Research Society, suggests irregular sleep-not just
overall amount-can play a significant role in students'
academic and behavior problems in high school.
The study was part of ongoing research funded by the
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
using data from the longitudinal Future of Families and
Child Well-Being study, which tracks the development of
5,000 urban children from birth to age 22. In the current
study, Stony Brook University researchers led by Gina Marie
Mathew and Lauren Hale analyzed data from about 800
teenagers who reported their school grades and behavior and
also wore wrist devices that allowed researchers to track their
sleep patterns over several days.
Across the board, the teenagers were sleep deprived. On
average, they got about 7.5 hours of sleep a night-somewhat
normal for adults but about 1.5 hours less than the American
Academy of Pediatrics recommends for adolescents.
A separate 2023 study from the federal Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention found students who get at least eight
hours of sleep a night have better mental health and academic
achievement. But prior studies find teenagers' sleep habits
have grown less consistent and late-night screen time has
risen in the last decade.
While adults (including teachers and principals) can also
suffer from irregular sleep, high schoolers are particularly
vulnerable, Mathew said, because sleep cycles naturally
change during adolescence.
" Instead of wanting to go to bed at nine, you could want to
sleep but only at 11:00 p.m. or maybe even 12:00 a.m., " she
said. " But then, especially if you have an early school start
time, you'll get short sleep during the school week and then on
FPO
the weekend try to make it up by sleeping in later. And so this
shifting of bedtimes and wake times across the week increases
sleep variability. "
However, researchers found students' sleep schedules were
much more closely linked to their academic progress and
behavior than the overall amount they slept. In particular,
students who more frequently went to bed later or varied the
number of hours they slept earned an A in fewer classes by the
end of the year. Students with more irregular sleep were also
more likely to earn a D or worse in multiple classes by the end of
the year.
Students who slept inconsistent hours were also more
likely to report getting in trouble at school and were more
likely to have been suspended or expelled in the last two
years.
4 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 8, 2024 | www.edweek.org
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Education Week - May 8, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 8, 2024

Education Week - May 8, 2024
Briefly Stated
The Surprising Connection Between Universal School Meals and Student Discipline
What the Research Says
When There’s More Money for Schools, Is There an ‘Objective’ Way to Hand It Out?
Can SEL Help Students Curb Their Own Cellphone Use?
This Is the Surprising Career Stage When Teachers Are Unhappiest
A Deep Dive Into TikTok’s Sketchy Mental Health Advice
Oxford School Shooter’s Parents Were Convicted. Holding the District Liable Could Be Tougher
How Columbine Shaped 25 Years of School Safety
25 Years After Columbine, America Spends Billions To Prevent Shootings That Keep Happening
How a School Made Parents Central To Its Turnaround
Reading Fluency: The Neglected Key To Reading Success
No, AI Detection Won’t Solve Cheating
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Stop Saying ‘These Kids Don’t Care About School’
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Education Week - May 8, 2024
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - CW2
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 1
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 3
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 5
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - When There’s More Money for Schools, Is There an ‘Objective’ Way to Hand It Out?
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 7
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Can SEL Help Students Curb Their Own Cellphone Use?
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 9
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - This Is the Surprising Career Stage When Teachers Are Unhappiest
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 11
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 12
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 13
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - A Deep Dive Into TikTok’s Sketchy Mental Health Advice
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 15
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Oxford School Shooter’s Parents Were Convicted. Holding the District Liable Could Be Tougher
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 17
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - How Columbine Shaped 25 Years of School Safety
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 19
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 25 Years After Columbine, America Spends Billions To Prevent Shootings That Keep Happening
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 21
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 22
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 23
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - How a School Made Parents Central To Its Turnaround
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 25
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 26
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - 27
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Reading Fluency: The Neglected Key To Reading Success
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - No, AI Detection Won’t Solve Cheating
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - Stop Saying ‘These Kids Don’t Care About School’
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - CW3
Education Week - May 8, 2024 - CW4
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