Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 20

16
How We Can Finally
End the 'Math Wars'
The Danger With
Giving Students Feedback
Feedback works best when it's just one step in the learning process
By Alfie Kohn
A
lot of people make a living
by offering advice
about how teachers
should give
feedback to
students-
or how
administrators should give
feedback to teachers.
Unfortunately, a body of
compelling theory and
research raises troubling
questions about much of
that advice. It turns out
that hearing how well
we've done (typically from
someone in a position of
power) often doesn't lead us
to improve.
" Feedback " originally
referred to a self-regulating
system like a thermostat in
which output affects input.
Thus, in keeping with the
mechanical analogy, when
the word is applied to human
communication, it should refer
only to information: " Here's
something you did that I noticed. ... "
When feedback is contaminated with
evaluation ( " Here's what I think about what
you did. ... " ), it tends to become not only less
effective but often downright damaging-both
to future performance and to recipients' interest in
whatever they were doing.
For decades, studies have shown that praising people
when they succeed can be just as counterproductive as
criticizing them when they fail. Nor does it help just to
tweak the phrasing or to praise one thing rather than
another (for example, effort rather than ability) because
the problem rests with the experience of being judged.
In the 1980s, researcher Ruth Butler found that students
often became more intrigued by a task when they
received simple comments about what they had done,
whereas praise " did not even maintain initial interest
at its baseline level. " More recently, two Vanderbilt
University researchers, Emily R. Fyfe and Bethany
Rittle-Johnson, reported that students, particularly those
who were reasonably proficient, did worse at math if
they had previously received praise for succeeding.
What is true of the judgment inherent in praise is
also true of the judgment inherent in grades. A series
of meta-analyses published in 2020 by Duke University
researchers showed that substantive feedback without
any grade attached was preferable for promoting both
motivation and achievement. In fact, getting a grade
was more damaging to motivation than receiving no
feedback at all, particularly for struggling students.
If good grades are just as destructive as bad grades,
incidentally, it may be because the most striking feature
of a positive evaluation isn't that it's positive but that
it's an evaluation. (One psychologist remarked that kids
would come to find it unpleasant even to watch TV if
they were regularly evaluated for how well they did it.)
But the central point here applies to adults as well as
children, which is why teachers often bristle at having an
administrator sit in judgment of them. What's remarkable
is that some of these teachers may not think twice
about subjecting their students to a constant stream of
evaluations.
Why do evaluations backfire? First, because they,
like other rewards, are typically experienced as
controlling-and people don't like to be controlled.
(Some early research found that praise is most likely
to undermine interest when it's seen as manipulative.)
Second, to receive a pat on the head (an A or a " Good
job! " ) for doing a task well serves to devalue that task;
it's been reframed as just a prerequisite for receiving a
reward. Finally, evaluation creates pressure to keep up
the good work, which, in turn, leads to risk avoidance.
If the point is to perform well, better to stick with
what one is likely to succeed at-a posture not exactly
conducive to learning or growth.
Feedback is better than evaluation, but that doesn't
mean it's always constructive. In fact, the most
comprehensive review of the research, comprising
more than 600 experimental comparisons, found
that even pure feedback often has a negative effect on
performance. And even when the effect is positive, its
impact may be small, and any learning that results may
be shallow.
So what determines whether, and to what extent,
feedback will help?
Hearing that you succeeded at a task, not
surprisingly, is more apt to strengthen interest than
20 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 21, 2022 | www.edweek.org/opinion
hearing that you didn't. (The
supposed benefits of failure are
wildly overrated.)
Sometimes it's obvious
whether your efforts paid off:
Either the seed you planted
sprouted, or it didn't; either
readers are surprised by your
ending, or they aren't. Such
feedback is less likely to reduce
interest than when someone
tells you how well you did,
which pulls you out of the
learning experience. Students
are then less engaged with
what they're doing and
more concerned with how
well someone thinks they're
doing it.
Feedback is most likely
to backfire when it's given
publicly or in comparison
with other people. Contrary
to a widespread American
myth, competition tends to
undermine intrinsic motivation
and achievement-for winners as
well as losers.
Feedback works best when it's just one
step in a learning process rather than a final
judgment, although even the formative kind isn't
always beneficial (particularly if it's based on a test).
It matters not only how but why feedback is given.
If the rationale is experienced as manipulative (to meet
someone else's standards), it may be damaging. The
ideal scenario is for information to be offered at the
recipient's request. In general, effective teachers and
managers do a lot more asking than telling: " How can I
help? " " What do you need to know? "
A final caveat: Even research suggesting that certain
feedback can be useful turns out to be less reassuring
than it appears because of dubious assumptions
about what " useful " means. As Lorrie Shepard at the
University of Colorado noticed, most studies of feedback
" are based on behaviorist assumptions. Typically the
outcome measures are narrowly defined [and] feedback
consists of reporting right and wrong answers. " Thus,
even if feedback " works, " it may do so only on tasks of
questionable value, such as cramming forgettable facts
into short-term memory.
With feedback, then, as with so much else in
education, paying too much attention to perfecting a
method distracts us from reflecting on our goal. And
the goal should concern not only the quality of learning
but the experience of the learner. Hence, educator Cris
Tovani's evocative confession: " I was concentrating so
hard on ... trying to perfect the feedback ... [that] I forgot
to focus on the kids. "
KOHN, who speaks widely at education conferences,
is the author of 14 books, including Punished by
Rewards and The Case Against Standardized Testing.
His website is www.alfiekohn.org.
17
Summer School
Reminded Me
Why I Love Teaching
18
Letters to
The Editor
J
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.
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http://www.alfiekohn.org http://www.edweek.org/opinion

Education Week - September 21, 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 21, 2022

Education Week - September 21, 2022
Briefly Stated
Digging Deeper Into the Stark Declines On NAEP: 5 Things to Know
What the Research Says
Why the Los Angeles Cyberattack Is a Wake-Up Call for Every School District
Why Elite College Admissions May Play An Outsized Role in K-12 Math Programs
These Teachers’ Book List Was Going to Be Restricted. Their Students Fought Back
Political Debate Upends Texas Social Studies Standards Process
This Superintendent’s Tiny, Rural District Got No COVID Aid. Here’s Why That Hurts
Why Elite College Admissions May Play An Outsized Role in K-12 Math Programs
Transgender Student Athletes Are In Limbo. Will Federal Law Add Clarity?
How We Can Finally End the ‘Math Wars’
Summer School Reminded Me Why I Love Teaching
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
The Danger With Giving Students Feedback
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Education Week - September 21, 2022
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - CW2
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 1
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 3
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Digging Deeper Into the Stark Declines On NAEP: 5 Things to Know
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - What the Research Says
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Why the Los Angeles Cyberattack Is a Wake-Up Call for Every School District
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 7
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Why Elite College Admissions May Play An Outsized Role in K-12 Math Programs
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 9
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - These Teachers’ Book List Was Going to Be Restricted. Their Students Fought Back
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Political Debate Upends Texas Social Studies Standards Process
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - This Superintendent’s Tiny, Rural District Got No COVID Aid. Here’s Why That Hurts
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Why Elite College Admissions May Play An Outsized Role in K-12 Math Programs
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Transgender Student Athletes Are In Limbo. Will Federal Law Add Clarity?
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - 15
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - How We Can Finally End the ‘Math Wars’
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Summer School Reminded Me Why I Love Teaching
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - The Danger With Giving Students Feedback
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - CW3
Education Week - September 21, 2022 - CW4
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