Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 6

How Teachers
Build Confidence
To Motivate Middle
Schoolers in STEM
By Arianna Prothero
Middle schoolers embody a messy
no-man's land: young enough to get
excited by stickers and play-acting,
but mature enough to crave autonomy
and opportunities to improve their
world.
Younger adolescents have shed
much of their early-childhood curiosity
and confidence that they can
do anything. They're hyper-focused
on peers, social standing, and extracurriculars,
right when the academic
rigor of their math and science classes
ratchets up.
Good luck getting this difficult-toinspire
bunch excited about the electromagnetic
spectrum or fractional
coefficients.
Sixth through 8th grade marks a
shift in what motivates students, presenting
a big challenge for science
and math teachers.
" For many [middle school] students,
their motivation will decline "
starting in adolescence, said Emily
Rosenzweig, an assistant professor
of educational psychology at the University
of Georgia who studies adolescent
motivation in STEM subjects.
There are different reasons this
happens, Rosenzweig said, but it surfaces
some new problems for middle
school teachers: " A big one is competence
perceptions: struggling to help
students feel like they can learn in
STEM, " she said.
Key to motivating this group academically,
experts say, is giving them
the chance to solve real problems in
the adult world, while nurturing their
confidence in their abilities and potential.
Educators must also appeal
to both sides of a middle schooler: the
adult they are becoming and the child
they very much still are.
In this developmental stage, kids
want to know why they're learning
something and not just be told to do
it, said Rosenzweig. That desire to
understand the " why " is rooted in
adolescents' growing need for independence,
she said.
What motivates middle school
students?
Connecting what students are learning
in STEM subjects to problems they
might have to tackle in the real world is
an important strategy for motivating
this age group.
In Dani Boepple's 8th grade science
class at McDonald Middle School in
Mesquite, Texas-located in the Dallas
metro area-students learn how
human activity in their land-locked city
impacts ocean ecosystems.
Boepple teaches them that what
goes down drains and runs off lawns at
home and in school eventually ends up
in the ocean. The same is true of litter,
which makes its way into local streams
and rivers.
Students then develop plans for action
they can take in their homes and
neighborhoods to reduce ocean pollution
from chemicals and plastics.
" Their plans are really simple but effective, "
Boepple said. " They will say,
'I need to tell my parents to not spray
pesticides on the garden and we need
to pull weeds. Or I can help my neighborhood
by cleaning up the trash that
I see in the parking lot.' It's things they
can actually do to make an impact. "
Projects like these tap into this current
generation's interest in fixing their
world, she said.
Boepple also takes her students on
virtual field trips to see the inner workings
of NASA's Johnson Space Center
in Houston and the technology behind
Amazon fulfillment facilities in different
states. Students can see how what
they're learning now about the physics
behind the movement of objects in our
solar system, for example, can be applied
to real careers. Hands-on experiments-such
as using kinetic sand to
make 3D models of topographic maps
or mixing chemicals to create reactions-can
also be a powerful motivator,
said Boepple.
A big challenge to motivating her students,
Boepple said, is that many are so
afraid of failing that they would rather
not try, something she attributes to students
internalizing the message that
they're behind after the pandemic and
a weakening focus on growth mindsets
in their schools.
To help students get past their fear of
failure, Boepple focuses on something
outside the traditional science curriculum:
trust.
" If they trust you, they are more willing
to try, " Boepple said. " Just like if
they like you, they are more willing to
try. Like is a big thing, especially for
middle school. They are not going to
work for someone they don't like. "
Boosting her students' confidence is
a focus for Kristyna Mosqueda-Rogers
in her 5th and 6th grade math classes as
well. Mosqueda-Rogers teaches at Carr
Middle School in Hale Center, a rural
community in northwest Texas. Her
students struggle with a lack of belief
in their capabilities, which leads to disengagement.
Her
answer? Food trucks.
Mosqueda-Rogers' 6th grade students
are designing their own food
trucks, tackling all the math that comes
with launching and running a small
business, from making decisions about
menus and hours of operation to calculating
the cost of food, fuel, and wages.
Students build shoebox-sized cardboard
models of their food trucks and
present their final projects in a classroom
food truck festival.
Mosqueda-Rogers' 5th graders engage
in a similar exercise: They design
6 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 19, 2024 | www.edweek.org
Connecting
things to the real
world that they
can relate to is
a great way to
engage them. [...]
You don't have
to teach straight
from the book.
JOHN DEDEAUX DAVIS, JR.
STEM education specialist,
NASA, and former middle
school science teacher
their own zoos, including researching
and calculating the size of the enclosures
for different types of animals.
" It brings in a lot of the concepts
that we teach into one realistic scenario, "
she said. " We're looking at
decimals, geometry, finance. "
While Mosqueda-Rogers has found
project-based learning to be very
motivating for her students, talking
about STEM careers or big, societal
problems that can be solved through
the STEM disciplines can be a little
too abstract for her 5th and 6th grade
students. So, she said, " I have to do
stuff that's related to them right now. "
But there are many barriers to
teaching students math and science
from a problem-solving perspective,
according to educators in a recent
EdWeek Research Center poll.
There are other strategies for motivating
this age group beyond projectbased
learning.
Teachers can find ways to give students
more say in their education,
said Rosenzweig, the psychologist,
to help meet their developmental
need for independence. For example,
teachers can offer students a choice
between an essay or a presentation
for an assignment, or consult students
in creating classroom rules.
In Boepple's 8th grade science
classroom, students can earn tickets
for meeting academic goals to spend
in the " college store " she has created.
She stocks her store with apparel and
accessories from different colleges
that she buys second-hand or has received
through donations. Students
in her school are allowed to not wear
their required uniforms as long as
they are sporting clothing with college
names on it, and they go wild
for the items, Boepple said.
" That really helps motivate them
because they can't afford to go buy
a nice college sweatshirt, " she said.
" They are so grateful, and they wear
them every day with pride. "
Both Boepple and MosquedaRogers
say that stickers that recognize
small or big achievements-
the currency of many elementary
school classrooms-remain powerful
motivators for middle school
students too.
Mosqueda-Rogers also believes that
the example she sets, as a Latina math
teacher, is helping motivate her students
by challenging stereotypes about
who can be good at math.
" I have so many little Hispanic girls
who have a deeper love for [math] now,
and they're just growing tremendously
because they're seeing that it can be
done by anyone, " she said.
Motivation is multifaceted, and so
are the ways to inspire it
Even if middle school students-
especially the younger ones-aren't
thinking too deeply, yet, about what
they want to do when they grow up,
it's important that they see it as plausible
that they could join a STEM field,
said John Dedeaux Davis Jr., a STEM
education specialist at NASA. The U.S.
space agency employs him to develop
resources for educators to spark kids'
interest in STEM subjects, so NASA
has the scientists it needs in the future.
" That connection is very important
because we know early exposure to
STEM can help drive people to those
careers, " said Davis, a former science
teacher who taught middle school in
Chicago and Texas for 16 years before
joining NASA. " Middle school is when
students really start to form those ideas
of what they might do as a career. "
When he was in the classroom, Davis
encouraged his students to tap into the
inner child they were quickly growing
out of and play make believe-acting
like a surgeon or astronaut. The idea,
he said, was simply to get students to
imagine themselves in these roles.
When it came time to dissect animals,
Davis decorated his classroom like a lab
or operating room and gave students
white coats to wear so they could pretend
to be scientists or doctors.
When the class studied space, Davis
set up different stations around the
classroom. For instance, he turned
the underside of a table into a rocket
cockpit. Students laid on their backs
beneath it, similar to how professional
astronauts position themselves during
take off.
" Connecting things to the real world
that they can relate to is a great way to
engage them, " Davis said. " You don't
F. Sheehan for Education Week + E+
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - June 19, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 19, 2024

Education Week - June 19, 2024
Briefly Stated
How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
What the Research Says
Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
EdWeek Top School Jobs
My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Education Week - June 19, 2024
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 2
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 4
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 5
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - ‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 11
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 13
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 14
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 17
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 18
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 21
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 23
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
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