Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 16

EDWEEK EXPLAINS
What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports,
and Sex Discrimination
2022
By Libby Stanford
After a long wait, the Biden administration has
officially made its mark on Title IX, the landmark
federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in schools,
with a revision to the law's regulations finalized earlier
this spring.
However President Joe Biden isn't the first president
to rewrite regulations implementing the historic law or
change how it's enforced. For the past three presidential
administrations, Title IX has been an easy place for
presidents to flex their political muscle on education and
make value statements about the rights of women and
LGBTQ+ people in educational settings.
In the Biden administration's case, the latest revision
strengthens the rights of LGBTQ+ students and staff.
The revised rule explicitly states that schools cannot
discriminate against students based on sexuality or
gender identity.
Before releasing the revised regulation, the U.S.
Department of Education already interpreted Title
IX to prohibit discrimination based on sexuality and
gender identity, based on a 2020 Supreme Court ruling
in Bostock v. Clayton County, Ga., that found that federal
employment law prohibits discrimination based on
gender identity and sexuality. However, the new rule
makes that explicit under Title IX without room for
interpretation.
" Since day one the Biden-Harris administration
has been committed to ensuring Title IX works for all
students, " Education Secretary Miguel Cardona said in
an April 18 news conference about the new rule. " These
regulations make crystal clear that everyone can access
schools that are safe, welcoming, and that respect their
rights. "
The change has set off a flurry of lawsuits against the
Education Department from at least 26 Republican-led
states, conservative advocacy organizations, and some
school districts that argue, among other points, that the
rule violates women's rights. By allowing nonbinary and
transgender people to benefit from Title IX protections,
the lawsuits argue, the department is stripping away
protections from cisgender women. In addition to the
lawsuits, some Republican-led states have instructed
school districts not to adhere to the revised regulation.
On June 13, a federal judge in Louisiana issued an
order to temporarily block the rule from going into effect
in Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Montana. In the
order, the judge said the revised rule is " an attempt to
circumvent Congress and make major changes to the
text, structure, and purpose of Title IX. " The order came
just a few days after another judge in Texas threw out the
Biden administration's 2021 guidance that schools should
interpret Title IX to protect students from discrimination
based on gender identity.
The debate over the law and how it applies to schools
will likely only be amplified in the coming months as
the department prepares to release another Title IX
rule revision that would prohibit schools from banning
all transgender students from joining school athletic
teams that align with their gender identity. If finalized as
proposed, that revision would directly challenge at least
25 state laws or regulations banning transgender athletes
from teams consistent with their gender identity.
Regardless of what happens, educators can bet on
changes to Title IX. Read on for more on the background
of Title IX, misconceptions about the law, its day-to-day
application in schools, and how it's enforced.
What is Title IX?
Rep. Patsy Mink, D-Hawaii, was the major sponsor and
author of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972,
which Congress passed and President Richard Nixon
16 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 19, 2024 | www.edweek.org
Demonstrators advocating for transgender rights and health care stand outside of the Ohio
Statehouse on Jan. 24, 2024, in Columbus, Ohio. Republican states are filing legal challenges
against the Biden administration's newly expanded campus sexual assault rules, saying they
overstep the president's authority and undermine the Title IX anti-discrimination law.
signed into law that year. Following her death in
2002, the law was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal
Opportunity in Education Act.
The law states that " no person in the United
States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from
participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be
subjected to discrimination under any education
program or activity receiving Federal financial
assistance. "
It was the first law to enshrine protections against
sex discrimination in schools and forced many
schools to establish equal opportunities for both girls
and boys in sports and other educational programs.
How does Title IX apply to K-12 schools?
A common misconception about Title IX is that
it only applies to colleges and universities, said
Elizabeth Tang, senior counsel for education and
workforce at the National Women's Law Center, a
Oklahoma Gov. Kevin Stitt signs a bill on March 30, 2022, that prevents
transgender girls and women from competing on female sports teams.
2024
nonprofit that advocates for equal rights for women and
LGBTQ+ people.
In actuality, the law applies to any entity that receives
federal funding and operates an educational program,
including K-12 schools, museums, libraries, and prison
education programs.
" That includes public school districts, charter schools,
which are also public schools, as well as any private K-12
schools that might receive any form of federal funds
whether through a school lunch program that receives
funding or maybe funding through books or curriculum, "
Tang said.
For example, if a private school received Paycheck
Protection Program loans during the pandemic, it would
be obligated to follow Title IX until those loans are
forgiven or repaid, Tang said.
People also commonly think Title IX only applies to
athletics, Tang said. In reality, it applies to any educational
function.
That means schools can't prohibit girls from
participating in non-athletic programs like debate or
robotics clubs. It also prohibits schools from establishing
single-gender classes in which one gender receives a
better education and superior resources.
" It's so much broader than athletics, " Tang said. " It
also prohibits sex-based harassment, which includes
sexual assault and dating violence, in schools and requires
schools to address those. It prohibits discrimination
against pregnant students and students who are
parenting. It prohibits discrimination against LGBTQI+
students. "
How has Title IX changed
in recent years?
When it passed in 1972, the law received broad
bipartisan support, with a Democratic champion steering
it through Congress and a Republican president signing it
into law. But recent years have given way to more divided
opinions on the law's reach.
Photos from top: Sean Murphy/AP, Patrick Orsagos/AP
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - June 19, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 19, 2024

Education Week - June 19, 2024
Briefly Stated
How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
What the Research Says
Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
EdWeek Top School Jobs
My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Education Week - June 19, 2024
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 2
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 4
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 5
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - ‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 11
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 13
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 14
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 17
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 18
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 21
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 23
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
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