Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 12

EDWEEK EXPLAINS
What Is
Restorative
Justice, and
How Can It Be
Implemented
In Schools?
By Brooke Schultz
When the Oakland Unified school district's restorative
justice coordinator, David Yusem, walks into one of the
district's schools, he wants to know how it feels: Does it feel
caring? Is there beauty on the walls? Do people seem to be
happy? Are people showing up because they feel loved?
That's how he tries to gauge the California district's
nearly two-decade progress with restorative justice
practices, a complete reimagining of school culture, and
of building a school community, while also ultimately
dismantling a racially disproportionate discipline structure.
" We know it works from our personal experiences with
it, " he said. " I can point to numbers that show it works, but
those numbers aren't as important. "
Student misbehavior has increased following the
pandemic, leading to more classroom friction since
schools returned to in-person learning. A crisis of chronic
absenteeism has eroded community connections,
complicating the fostering of a supportive and trusting
environment.
Even as educators see an uptick in misbehavior, nearly
half of teachers and administrators say their schools
are using restorative justice practices more now than
five years ago, according to a recent EdWeek Research
Center survey. But the purest version of the restorative
justice framework is hard to come by, said Allison Payne,
a professor at Villanova University in Pennsylvania who
studies the practice.
" It requires a complete overhaul of not just the
disciplinary structure but the full ethos of a school, " she said.
Here's an overview of what restorative justice is and how
it fits into the larger school system.
What is restorative justice?
Under a restorative justice model, any delinquency
or victimization is viewed as harm done to a web of
relationships in schools, and the response is healing the
harm, rather than punishing the perpetrator by excluding,
shunning, or stigmatizing them, Payne said.
Under the full model, there would need to be a sense in
the school community that everyone belongs and everyone
is connected. Any negative behavior, to the point that it
brings harm or damages the web of relationships, would
be addressed under the concept of: How do we fix those
relationships?
" The response is not: 'You are bad, you need to leave,' "
Payne said. " The response is: 'What you did was wrong, so
we need to fix that.' "
What is restorative justice in schools?
More often in schools, restorative justice practices, and
punitive measures-such as detention, suspensions, or
expulsion-are used simultaneously.
Often, Payne said, interventions and supports
are depicted as a pyramid. A majority of students
who do little wrong are in the bottom tier. Moving
upward, there are smaller groups of at-risk students
and those who are misbehaving. Supportive and
trusting relationships tend to focus on the bottom tier,
where there's usually a conversation with a teacher or
12 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 19, 2024 | www.edweek.org
counselor when misbehavior occurs, which is reflective
of restorative justice practices.
The top two tiers tend to face punitive responses: They
get sent to the principal or get detention-or they're
removed from school entirely.
Sometimes, schools use practices along with punitive
approaches, which is like " slapping restorative justice on
top of a punitive framework, " said Kelly Welch, a professor
in the sociology and criminology department at Villanova
University who co-authored research with Payne.
" [It's] just a really inconsistent message that kids are
getting: 'OK, well we'll treat you really restoratively, but
then we're going to treat you harshly if we don't like what
you're doing,' " she said.
Over time, especially in the last few decades, more
schools have implemented restorative justice practices
into their disciplinary measures. Only a limited number
of schools have fully decided to " burn it down and build it
back up " to use the true framework, Payne said.
In Oakland, Yusem, the restorative justice coordinator,
said that the district banned " defiance " as a suspensionlevel
offense. Now, most of their suspensions are violencerelated.
Largely, they've seen a decline in exclusionary
disciplinary practices.
He said he doesn't look at restorative justice as an
alternative to the punitive measures, but, " if you practice
it with fidelity, over time, you're going to see your
suspensions and expulsions go down as a result, because
it's not going to be necessary. "
What are the three main principles of
restorative justice?
Restorative justice seeks to get to the core of why harm
in the community is happening, said Sandra Pavelka, a
professor in the department of political science and public
administration at Florida Gulf Coast University, who
studies restorative justice practices. It follows three main
principles: holding the wrongdoer accountable, involving
the victim/survivor, and engaging the community.
It does that by promoting character development;
increasing student connections; building classroom
community; resolving conflict efficiently; building
consensus; planning for the future; achieving mutual
understanding; and ritualizing connections, transitions,
and change, she said.
" It's really about establishing resolution, seeking those
root harms behind the individual and group behaviors,
but also repairing that harm and resolving conflict, and
individualizing the case plans for all the students who are
involved, " Pavelka said. " As we know, hurt people hurt
people, and hurt children will hurt other children. "
What are the R's of restorative practices in
schools?
There are four key features, Pavelka said:
Respect: Having respect for everyone by listening to
opinions and learning to value them;
Responsibility: Taking responsibility for one's actions;
Repair: Giving the school community the skills so
individuals have the ability to identify solutions that
repair harm;
Reintegration: Having a structured, supportive process
to resolve harms, and ensure those harms aren't repeated,
without removing students from the school environment.
What are the benefits of restorative justice in
schools?
Restorative practices can be used to disrupt the schoolto-prison
pipeline and focus on healing harm and resolving
conflict, Pavelka said.
Pavelka said it brings a wealth of positive values:
developing character, building consensus, achieving
mutual understanding, and building school and classroom
community.
Villanova's Welch said that students are often treated
like criminals in the criminal justice system.
" They are still kids, and they are going to school, and
their primary objective is to learn, " she said. " I think this
is just such a promising context in which to implement
restorative justice. "
What are the disadvantages of restorative
justice?
Villanova's Payne said that there's a lack of research with
clear positive outcomes. There are some qualitative ones, she
said, that suggest there are impacts to student achievement.
But so few schools use a true restorative model, there's no gold
standard of quantitative results, she said.
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Education Week - June 19, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 19, 2024

Education Week - June 19, 2024
Briefly Stated
How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
What the Research Says
Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
EdWeek Top School Jobs
My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Education Week - June 19, 2024
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 2
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 4
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 5
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - How Teachers Build Confidence To Motivate Middle Schoolers in STEM
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Should Voters Decide What Schools Teach?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Does It Mean for Teachers To Dress ‘Professionally’?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - ‘Politics Does Not Belong In Education,’ Says a Departing State Schools Chief
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 11
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Restorative Justice, And How Can It Be Implemented In Schools?
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 13
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 14
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - The AI Tools for Teachers Are Getting More Robust. Here’s How
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - What Is Title IX? Schools, Sports, And Sex Discrimination
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 17
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 18
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - Teachers Aren’t ‘Silicon Valley’s Lackeys’
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - AI Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 21
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - 23
Education Week - June 19, 2024 - My Life as a Substitute Teacher In Suburbia: Chaos and Cruelty
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