Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 10

Will Restrictions on Teaching
'Controversial' Issues Target
Science Classes?
Proposals that target the teaching of evolution aren't new.
But they're changing shape in the political moment
By Sarah Schwartz
In their efforts to regulate how
teachers can discuss issues of politics
and identity in the classroom, Republican
state legislators have so far
focused mainly on social studies and
history instruction. Now, a few lawmakers
are eyeing science.
In Texas, a bill that would mandate
teaching a " positive " version
of U.S. history and ban works that
" condone civil disorder " also includes
language long used by advocates
on the religious right to
prevent the teaching of evolution as
scientific fact.
In Oklahoma, a lawmaker who introduced
a bill requiring that teachers
be allowed to support students
in critiquing " existing scientific
theories " told local news outlets
that this and other proposals would
ensure students " learn factual information
rather than modern wokeness. "
Neither
legislator responded to requests
for comment.
Bills that use this kind of language-
mandating schools to teach the
" strengths and weaknesses " of scientific
theories-aren't new, said Glenn
Branch, the deputy director of the National
Center for Science Education, a
group that advocates for teaching evolution
and climate science and tracks
related legislation.
They're part of a decades-long
push by conservative activists to
require that schools downplay or
qualify the scientific consensus on
evolution. These bills pop up in a
handful of state legislatures most
years, he said, and they generally
fail to pass.
But now, some legislators are linking
these science instructional mandates
to the ongoing movement to
restrict how teachers discuss race and
gender in schools.
There's a common thread in all of
these proposals, said Erika Shugart,
the executive director of the National
Science Teaching Association.
" Issues that were just not controversial
for a long time have suddenly
become controversial, " she said.
" And it's not coming from the educators
or the teachers, it's coming from
politicians. "
Tracing the links between
anti-evolution laws and the
current moment
Over the past two years, schools
have fielded an onslaught of challenges
about how teachers discuss
race and gender in the classroom.
Republican politicians and conservative
activists claim that teachers
focus too much on the negative
aspects of America's past and present,
and are teaching white students
to feel guilty and ashamed. They've
pushed to remove books with
LGBTQ storylines and ban discussions
of gender and sexuality.
Since January 2021, lawmakers in 44
states have introduced bills or other
policies that would restrict how teachers
can discuss racism and sexism, according
to an Education Week analysis.
Eighteen states have imposed
these bans.
The movement, for the most part,
has been focused on the novels
students read and the history they
learn-not science instruction. But
this moment bears some similarities
to the cultural firestorm over evolution
that swept schools in the 1920s,
said Adam Laats, a history professor
in the department of teaching,
learning, and educational leadership
at Binghamton University in
New York.
Both, he said, are a backlash to anxieties
about societal change.
In the 1920s, several states adopted
laws banning the teaching
of evolution, with lawmakers and
other political leaders citing fears
that it would subvert religious
teaching and corrupt the morals of
American children.
The most famous of these was Tennessee's
Butler Act, which was challenged
in 1925 in The State of Tennessee
v. John Thomas Scopes-more commonly
known as the Scopes Monkey
Trial. But it wasn't until 1968 that the
Supreme Court declared anti-evolution
laws unconstitutional, a violation
of the First Amendment, which prevents
the government from passing
laws " respecting an establishment of
religion. "
Since then, the language in proposed
legislation on this issue has
changed. Instead of explicitly banning
the teaching of evolution, or
promoting the teaching of creationism,
bills require that teachers have
academic freedom to critique scientific
consensus or teach strengths
and weaknesses of established scientific
theories.
Other bills have proposed that
teachers only be allowed to present
scientific facts, and not scientific
theories-an attempt to prohibit
the teaching of evolution or climate
change, Branch said. (One such bill
introduced this session in Montana
was recently tabled.)
The phrasing implies that a scientific
theory is a " mere guess or
10 | EDUCATION WEEK | March 15, 2023 | www.edweek.org
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hunch, " he said. But a " theory " in
science is different from the common
usage of the word-it refers
to an accepted scientific principle
based on decades of empirical research.
This
elliptical language is designed
to avoid running afoul
of prior Supreme Court rulings,
Branch said.
" Laws and policies like this have
uniformly been declared to be unconstitutional,
because there's always
been a detectable religious motive, "
he said. " If you want to get a bill like
that over, it's not in your interest to
admit that's the motivation. "
Anti-evolution bills don't tend
to pass-but could still have
a chilling effect
In 2012, Tennessee lawmakers
passed a law that would allow
teachers to present the " scientific
strengths and scientific weaknesses
of existing scientific theories. " A
2006 Mississippi law gives teachers
the right to discuss and answer student
questions on " origin of life. "
And in 2008, Louisiana mandated
that schools foster " critical thinking
skills " and " open and objective
discussion " of evolution, the origins
of life, global warming, and human
cloning.
Still, the vast majority of these
kinds of bills don't make it into
law, said Laats. " They don't tend to
work, or pass, or do much, " he said.
And while it's possible that some of
these new science-related bills may
pass, Branch said, he thinks it's unlikely
that there will be an explosion
in legislation on the topic to parallel
how Republicans have targeted certain
novels and social studies topics.
Nevertheless, local challenges to
science materials rooted in so-called
curriculum transparency laws have
occurred. And the current political
climate has made science educators
more wary, said Shugart of the National
Science Teaching Association.
Along with three other national
teaching associations, the NSTA
signed a 2022 statement against attempts
by legislators and local school
boards to restrict what materials
teachers can use and what they can
say in the classroom. The statement
specifically references " the elimination
of teaching about evolution and
climate change " as a present threat.
" When state legislators are ...
making people fear for their jobs if
they 'teach the wrong thing,' that
only chills the environment more
for educators, " Shugart said.
INTERACTIVE MAP:
See which states have introduced
bills or have taken other steps that
would restrict teaching critical
race theory or limit how teachers
can discuss racism and sexism.
> edweek.org
Duncan Walker/E+
http://www.edweek.org http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - March 15, 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 15, 2023

Education Week - March 15, 2023
Briefly Stated
Why a Handful of School Districts Rejected COVID Relief Funds
A District’s Long-Term Investment In Cultivating Future Teachers Is Paying Off
What the Research Says
This High School Class Partnered With a Law School Program. Here’s What Both Learned
Why Connecting Tutoring to Curriculum Could Make it More Effective
Principals or Peers: Who Should Evaluate Teachers?
Will Restrictions on Teaching ‘Controversial’ Issues Target Science Classes?
What’s the Best Thing Happening in Schools Right Now? We Asked Top Teachers
A Transgender Student Moved Cross-Country For a Welcoming School. Here’s Their Story
Teacher Pay Raise Proposals Are Gaining Bipartisan Support. What’s in Them?
A $60K Starting Salary for Teachers? Not a Single State Meets the Bar
Substitute Teachers Shouldn’t Be Punching Bags
What Principals Can Do About School Bias
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Fighting the Rise in Antisemitism: Advice for Teachers
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Education Week - March 15, 2023
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - CW2
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 1
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 3
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - A District’s Long-Term Investment In Cultivating Future Teachers Is Paying Off
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - What the Research Says
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - This High School Class Partnered With a Law School Program. Here’s What Both Learned
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 7
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Why Connecting Tutoring to Curriculum Could Make it More Effective
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Principals or Peers: Who Should Evaluate Teachers?
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Will Restrictions on Teaching ‘Controversial’ Issues Target Science Classes?
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - What’s the Best Thing Happening in Schools Right Now? We Asked Top Teachers
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - A Transgender Student Moved Cross-Country For a Welcoming School. Here’s Their Story
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 13
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Teacher Pay Raise Proposals Are Gaining Bipartisan Support. What’s in Them?
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - A $60K Starting Salary for Teachers? Not a Single State Meets the Bar
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Substitute Teachers Shouldn’t Be Punching Bags
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - What Principals Can Do About School Bias
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - 18
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - Fighting the Rise in Antisemitism: Advice for Teachers
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - CW3
Education Week - March 15, 2023 - CW4
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