Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 4

Pressure to Close Schools Is Ramping Up.
What Districts Need to Know
Falling enrollments and tight budgets are
prompting communities to consider school
closures. But doing so is never simple
By Mark Lieberman
Just before the pandemic began,
administrators for the Oneida school
district in upstate New York started
pondering a plan to consolidate two
elementary schools where enrollment
had been steadily declining for years.
The onset of COVID-19, and the
burst of federal relief aid that followed
it, put those plans on hold. In recent
months, though, the 1,700-student
district has revisited the possibility
that it could better serve students and
spend resources more prudently with
five schools instead of six.
On paper, the decision might seem
simple. Having one less building
reduces the cost of facilities maintenance,
as well as compensation for
principals and their deputies, nurses,
counselors, and other building aides.
That, in turn, frees up funds that could
be redirected to staffing and support
for students at the remaining schools.
But closing a school is almost always
a logistically and emotionally arduous
process.
The Oneida district's students live
across 42 square miles, which means
closing a school could lengthen bus
rides for many. Staff at the shuttered
school might not be keen on shifting
to another school, meaning the district
could find itself needing to fill positions
it otherwise wouldn't. And the school
building slated for closure, North Broad
Street Elementary, has been a fixture in
the community since it opened in 1911,
meaning the 10,000-person city would
be losing a part of its identity.
" We heard from people saying, my
father went to that school 90 years
ago. Please don't close the school, "
said Matt Carpenter, the district's
superintendent since 2021. " That's
something that we have to consider. "
Dilemmas like these will almost certainly
crop up for many district leaders
in the coming months and years.
After a handful of years of statelevel
surpluses and unprecedented
infusions of federal cash, the financial
outlook for districts could be less rosy
going forward. The rate of births nationwide
is dropping and public school
enrollment never fully bounced back
as expected from pandemic declines,
which means schools will have fewer
students to educate, and fewer perpupil
funds to work with.
The pressure to close schools has
already begun to accelerate in some
places. Big-city districts like Boston,
Memphis, Tenn., Wichita, Kan., and
Jackson, Miss., are either considering
plans to shutter and consolidate school
buildings or have already decided to do
so, as have plenty of smaller districts in
states like Missouri and Indiana.
The still-growing body of research
on the impacts of school closures suggests
district leaders need to develop
deliberate and detailed plans with
abundant community input. Handled
poorly, research shows, closures can
exacerbate racial inequities and hamper
student achievement. They can
often fall short of generating significant
savings as well.
Here are a few key factors districts
need to keep top of mind as they ponder
the costs and benefits of closing
one or multiple schools:
1. Make realistic estimates
of cost savings
The vast majority of school district
budgets goes toward salaries and
benefits for staff. Axing one facility
to trim the costs of energy and maintenance
may not guarantee a meaningful
difference in many districts'
financial fortunes.
The process of losing a school
building also brings its own expenses,
said Francis A. Pearman, an
assistant professor at the Stanford
Graduate School of Education who
studies school closures.
Districts often hire consultants to
help sort through closure options or
game out new transportation scenarios.
Even the act of closing a physical
building-boarding up doors and
windows, erecting protective fencing,
maintaining and marketing the building
for a possible sale-costs money.
" When we're thinking about closures
purely from a financial standpoint, it's
not entirely clear that the arrow points
in the direction that we would presume
it to point, " Pearman said.
Still, districts constrained by limited
resources often see value in cutting
down on school buildings.
The Billings district in Montana has
built up a deficit of $3.5 million over
the last seven years. State education
funding has declined, in part because
overall enrollment has dropped slightly
from 17,000 in 2018 to 16,500 students
this year, with some portions of the district
seeing steeper falls than others.
Even if that deficit were manageable
without making big moves like
closing a school, Garcia said, he can't
ignore that it will inevitably grow even
deeper. Collective bargaining with
the district's staff unions is coming
up. Teachers in a state whose average
pay for educators is on the lower end
nationally deserve a raise to keep pace
with inflation, he believes.
" I cannot go to the teachers' union
and pretend that a 1 percent increase
is going to address the 12 percent to 15
percent inflation that the teachers face
right now, " Garcia said.
Instead, his team examined how
much the district is spending per stu4
| EDUCATION WEEK | February 7, 2024 | www.edweek.org
dent on staff compensation in each
school building. The average was
roughly $5,000 per pupil, but in some
schools with falling numbers of students,
that figure approached $10,000.
District leaders determined that
roughly 200 students from Washington
Elementary School could move to
one of three nearby schools without
the need for a single new full-time
employee. Beginning this fall, staff
from that building will fill gaps in other
schools.
" Nobody wants to work for a school
district that is perpetually broke. I
don't think that sends a good message
for the taxpayers, " Garcia said. " If we
can do better, let's do better. "
2. Explore viable alternatives
Schools are often the anchors
of neighborhoods and communities,
providing a crucial gathering
place for social and cultural events.
They're also among the largest employers
in an area.
Losing that community space and
economic driver when a school closes
can be harmful to nearby residents,
especially when the former school sits
in a neighborhood in poverty, or in a
rural area with few or no other public
spaces or employers.
Plus, closed school buildings often
languish for years, falling into disrepair
or eventually getting sold to a private
company that changes its purpose.
" If we shut those school buildings
down, those rural communities lose
that source of social life and economic
well-being, " said Mara Casey Tieken,
an associate professor of education
at Bates College who has conducted
research on the impacts of school closures,
particularly in rural areas.
In Billings, instead of leaving the
building behind, Superintendent Garcia's
team plans to transform the facility
into a home for two new districtrun
charter schools.
Closing the building altogether
would have been more financially
prudent, Garcia said. But he didn't feel
right arriving in the district from a faraway
state and immediately moving
to get rid of a beloved school building.
" No superintendent really wants to
close schools just because of funds, " he
said. " We don't see this as something
we want to do. We are forced to do it. "
Both charter schools will be governed
by the Billings school board and
receive state funding through Montana's
new charter school mechanism.
One will serve as the first early college
high school in the entire state, and the
other will serve students who have
dropped out of high school.
Districts facing acute pressure to
close schools likely have more options
at their disposal than many might assume,
Tieken said, with some helping
districts save enough money that
building closures are no longer needed.
School buildings near each other
might be able to share resources, like a
special education teacher who covers
two campuses, or a course offering in
one building could be made available
to students from multiple schools.
Dual enrollment programs that
allow students to take college courses
during high school can open up costsharing
opportunities between schools
and institutions of higher education.
Even offering a high-quality virtual
education option could lead to
cost savings if enough students enroll,
she said.
The primary thing to avoid, by contrast,
is forcing students to spend two
hours on a bus to get to school each
day.
" We need to be thinking about education
and schooling in these more
holistic ways, " Tieken said.
3. Think long-term
A school district in California recently
sought Pearman's advice on
what to do about the pressing financial
need to close a school building in
a low-income neighborhood.
Pearman advised the district to
take the long view. Could converting
that facility to a new high school
geared toward performing arts help
draw new students from within and
outside the district?
There would be upfront costs and
lots of logistical challenges. But years
from now, the effects could be transformative
for the neighborhood.
" Those kind of subtle changes can
do incredible work for reshaping the
future of a school that moves it away
from the trajectory of closure to a trajectory
of livelihood, " Pearman said.
District leaders can approach the
prospect of closure with a spirit of creativity.
Garcia's effort to create new
charter schools and reap the benefits
of a new revenue stream represents
one approach.
In Oneida, the plan to close one of
four K-5 elementary schools isn't happening
in isolation. The district is also
preparing to divide students in the
three remaining elementary buildings
by grade level: pre-K, kindergarten,
and 1st grade in one building; grades 2
and 3 in another; and grades 4 and 5 in
the third.
Right now, for instance, 4th graders
might have different access to educational
opportunities depending on
which building they're in. Under the
new model, all services for 4th graders
would be aligned, as they'll all be
housed under one roof.
Carpenter sees a similar benefit for
special education. For the last few
years, elementary students with disabilities
went to one of two school
buildings based on the services they
needed. Now, they'll be able to attend
school in a building with all the
students from their own grade level,
with more opportunities to receive
instruction alongside their peers in
traditional classrooms.
The plan has drawn ire from some
community members, including a
local group planning to petition the
state department of education to intervene.
Carpenter said his team has
labored to help the community understand
the proposal at as many as
25 public meetings.
" Not everybody in the community
was at all the meetings or had access
to all the data points, " Carpenter said.
" It's a very challenging situation. "
Illustration by Liz Yap/Education Week (Images: iStock/Getty)
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - February 7, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 7, 2024

Education Week - February 7, 2024
Briefly Stated
Pressure to Close Schools Is Ramping Up. What Districts Need to Know
What the Research Says
A Massive Data Leak Exposed School Lockdown Plans. What Districts Need to Know
One School District Just Pulled 1,600 Books From its Shelves—Including the Dictionary
Schools Should Boost Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities, Special Olympics Leader Says
How These Principals Nip Apathy in the Bud After Winter Break and Long Weekends
As Private School Choice Grows, Critics Push for More Guardrails
In 1974, the Supreme Court Recognized English Learners’ Rights. The Story Behind That Case
How a 1974 U.S. Supreme Court Case Still Influences English-Learner Education
The ‘Science of Reading’ in 2024: 5 State Initiatives to Watch
How to Strengthen the Safety And Security of Your School
Why I Told an Excellent Teacher It Was Time to Leave
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
2 Billion People Celebrate Lunar New Year. Your Class Can, Too
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Education Week - February 7, 2024
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW2
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 1
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 3
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Pressure to Close Schools Is Ramping Up. What Districts Need to Know
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - A Massive Data Leak Exposed School Lockdown Plans. What Districts Need to Know
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - One School District Just Pulled 1,600 Books From its Shelves—Including the Dictionary
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Schools Should Boost Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities, Special Olympics Leader Says
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How These Principals Nip Apathy in the Bud After Winter Break and Long Weekends
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - As Private School Choice Grows, Critics Push for More Guardrails
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 11
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - In 1974, the Supreme Court Recognized English Learners’ Rights. The Story Behind That Case
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How a 1974 U.S. Supreme Court Case Still Influences English-Learner Education
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 14
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 15
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - The ‘Science of Reading’ in 2024: 5 State Initiatives to Watch
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 17
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 18
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How to Strengthen the Safety And Security of Your School
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Why I Told an Excellent Teacher It Was Time to Leave
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 22
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 2 Billion People Celebrate Lunar New Year. Your Class Can, Too
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW3
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW4
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01312024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08142023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07122023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05032023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12072022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013_unprotected
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013_old
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08172016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08172022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07132022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06152022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05042022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04062022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02092022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01192022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01122022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01052022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12082021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12012021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10272021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10202021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10062021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09292021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09222021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09152021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09082021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09012021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08252021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08182021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07142021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06162021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06092021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06022021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04282021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05122021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05052021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04212021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04142021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03312021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03102021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11252020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11182020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com