Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 12

In 1974, the Supreme Court Recognized English
Learners' Rights. The Story Behind That Case
Fifty years ago, the ruling required
public schools to provide language
support to English learners
" Lau became a beacon of hope for
By Mark Walsh
Fifty years ago, the U.S. Supreme
Court issued a decision that some
considered the Brown v. Board of Education
for students whose native language
is not English.
In its 1974 ruling in Lau v. Nichols,
the court held that the failure of the
San Francisco school system to effectively
educate some 1,800 Chinesespeaking
students denied them " a
meaningful opportunity " to participate
in school.
Like the 1954 Brown decision
striking down racial segregation in
schools, Lau addressed educational
inequities faced by a disadvantaged
minority population. Like Brown, the
justices spoke without dissent (though
there were some minor differences
over the case issued in concurring
opinions).
The Lau decision was hailed by
advocates for immigrant and nativeborn
language-minority students and
it resulted in slow but genuine improvements
in the classroom for not
only the Asian-American community
but also the much larger Latino student
population in the United States.
However, there were limitations to
the scope and impact of the Lau decision.
Unlike Brown, which relied on
the 14th Amendment's guarantee of
equal protection of the laws, Lau was
decided on the basis of Title VI of the
Civil Rights Act of 1974, which bars
discrimination on the basis of race,
color, or national origin in federally
funded programs. That made it more
difficult to enforce.
And in contrast to Brown's long gestation
at the court over three years,
Lau was decided relatively quickly-
barely more than a month after oral
arguments and without the attention
surrounding most potentially landmark
cases.
" It was just never as visible as
Brown, " said Rachel Moran, a professor
at Texas A&M University's
law school in Fort Worth, a scholar
of the case.
The day after the decision, Lau was
mentioned on the front page of The
New York Times, but only secondarily
in a story about another education ruling,
also from Jan. 21, that invalidated
school district policies requiring pregnant
teachers to take leave well before
it was medically necessary.
" The legacy of Lau is that it did have
some symbolic value, even though the
court never clearly stated that English
learners had a right to education in
their home language, " said Rosemary
Salomone, a law professor at St. John's
University in New York City who has
written widely on the case.
English-language learners as a symbol
of this notion of a 'meaningful education,'
" she said. " But it never fully delivered
on that promise. "
A mother's meeting leads to a
lawsuit over her son's schooling
The San Francisco case began in the
late 1960s, when a community activist
named Ling-Chi Wang tried to organize
the city's Chinese community to
press for improvements in schooling
for their children, who were mostly
immersed in English-only instruction.
One of those parents, Kam Wai Lau,
went to the Chinatown/North Beach
office of the San Francisco Legal Assistance
Foundation in 1970 to seek
aid over a wage dispute. She met a
newly minted lawyer named Edward
Steinman, who was working at the
legal aid office on a fellowship and
seeking test cases to help improve
people's lives.
"
Lau became
a beacon of hope
for Englishlanguage
learners
as a symbol of
this notion of
a 'meaningful
education.' But
it never fully
delivered on
that promise.
ROSEMARY C. SALOMONE
Law professor at St. John's
University in New York City
Steinman learned that Lau's son, a
1st grader at Jean Parker Elementary
School in Chinatown, was struggling
with instruction because it was all in
English. The boy, Kinney Kinmon
Lau, had emigrated from Hong Kong
at the age of 5 and spoke little English.
" Every one of my clients needed an
interpreter, " Steinman, 79, said in an
interview with Education Week. " It
didn't take long for a light bulb to go
off that I had a case here. "
Steinman sued on behalf of Lau and
a class of Chinese-speaking students
under Title VI and the equal-protec12
| EDUCATION WEEK | February 7, 2024 | www.edweek.org
tion clause. Both a federal district
court and the U.S. Court of Appeals
for the 9th Circuit, in San Francisco,
ruled against them on both claims.
Steinman believed he had a strong
argument that would help his appeal
to the Supreme Court. In 1970, the
then-Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare (HEW) issued guidance
to school districts that Title VI's
anti-discrimination mandate applied
to students whose dominant language
was not English.
Under the guidance, federally
funded schools had to " take affirmative
steps to rectify the language deficiency
to open instructional programs
to these students. "
Steinman believed the high court
would recognize the importance of
the federal interpretation of Title VI
in a way that the lower courts had
not. There was another factor in his
mind. In March 1973, the high court
decided, in San Antonio Independent
School District v. Rodriguez, that there
was no federal constitutional right to
an education.
That decision did not bode well for
reviving the San Francisco students'
equal-protection claim. But Steinman
believes the justices were a bit
alarmed by negative public reaction to
their sweeping decision in Rodriguez.
" And then this little case comes
along, " he said, referring to the San
Francisco students' case.
The Supreme Court granted a review
of the Chinese students' case.
Students ally with the Nixon
administration
Oral argument was on Dec. 10,
1973. None of the families involved in
the suit could afford to travel to Washington,
Steinman said. He stressed in
his argument that the school system
was perpetuating their inability to
speak English.
" Our goal is that we want these
students to be taught English and to
understand English, so they can have
the type of mastered English which
our society requires, " Steinman told
the justices. " The problem now is that
they are being taught in a language
they do not understand. "
He said that the plaintiffs were not
demanding any particular remedy,
which would give the school system
the leeway to act on its own expertise
to develop one if the court ruled for
the students.
President Richard Nixon's administration
supported the students, with
J. Stanley Pottinger, an assistant U.S.
attorney general, emphasizing Title
VI of the Civil Rights Act.
" In interpreting both the basic protections
of Title VI and the regulations,
HEW has indeed gone further, "
said Pottinger, who as civil rights chief
at HEW had written the 1970 guidance.
" It has construed the meaning
of Title VI in a national origin discrimination
memorandum relevant to this
case by stating that where inability
to speak and understand the English
language excludes national origin minority
group children from the effective
participation in the educational
program offered by the school district,
the school district must take affirmative
steps to rectify the language deficiency. "
The
San Francisco school district,
in its merits brief before the Supreme
Court, said that merely because free
public education was a service provided
by the state did not mean that
the children of Chinese descent could
" compel the state to provide them
with special instruction to remedy
their own personal problems. "
At oral argument, Thomas M.
O'Connor, the city attorney of San
Francisco, sought to portray the
U.S. Supreme Court Justice
William Douglas, shown in
an undated photo, wrote the
opinion in Lau v. Nichols, the
1974 decision holding that
the San Francisco school
system had denied
Chinese-speaking
schoolchildren a meaningful
opportunity to participate in
their education.
AP
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - February 7, 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 7, 2024

Education Week - February 7, 2024
Briefly Stated
Pressure to Close Schools Is Ramping Up. What Districts Need to Know
What the Research Says
A Massive Data Leak Exposed School Lockdown Plans. What Districts Need to Know
One School District Just Pulled 1,600 Books From its Shelves—Including the Dictionary
Schools Should Boost Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities, Special Olympics Leader Says
How These Principals Nip Apathy in the Bud After Winter Break and Long Weekends
As Private School Choice Grows, Critics Push for More Guardrails
In 1974, the Supreme Court Recognized English Learners’ Rights. The Story Behind That Case
How a 1974 U.S. Supreme Court Case Still Influences English-Learner Education
The ‘Science of Reading’ in 2024: 5 State Initiatives to Watch
How to Strengthen the Safety And Security of Your School
Why I Told an Excellent Teacher It Was Time to Leave
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
2 Billion People Celebrate Lunar New Year. Your Class Can, Too
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Education Week - February 7, 2024
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW2
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 1
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 3
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Pressure to Close Schools Is Ramping Up. What Districts Need to Know
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - What the Research Says
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - A Massive Data Leak Exposed School Lockdown Plans. What Districts Need to Know
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - One School District Just Pulled 1,600 Books From its Shelves—Including the Dictionary
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Schools Should Boost Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities, Special Olympics Leader Says
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How These Principals Nip Apathy in the Bud After Winter Break and Long Weekends
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - As Private School Choice Grows, Critics Push for More Guardrails
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 11
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - In 1974, the Supreme Court Recognized English Learners’ Rights. The Story Behind That Case
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How a 1974 U.S. Supreme Court Case Still Influences English-Learner Education
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 14
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 15
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - The ‘Science of Reading’ in 2024: 5 State Initiatives to Watch
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 17
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 18
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - How to Strengthen the Safety And Security of Your School
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Why I Told an Excellent Teacher It Was Time to Leave
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 22
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - 2 Billion People Celebrate Lunar New Year. Your Class Can, Too
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW3
Education Week - February 7, 2024 - CW4
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01312024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172024
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08142023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07122023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05032023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02012023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182023
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12072022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013_unprotected
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013_old
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08172016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08172022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07132022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06152022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05042022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04062022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02232022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02162022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02092022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02022022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01192022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01122022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01052022
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12082021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12012021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10272021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10202021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10062021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09292021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09222021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09152021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09082021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09012021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08252021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08182021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07142021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06162021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06092021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06022021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04282021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05122021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05052021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04212021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04142021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03312021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03102021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02032021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062021
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11252020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11182020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
https://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com