Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9


of poor instruction would be helped earlier so that they
wouldn't need special education later on. The smaller
group of children who didn't respond to interventions
would be evaluated for disabilities.
But in 2011, the U.S. Department of Education sent a
"Dear Colleague" letter to educators saying that RTI
could not be used to delay or deny special education
identification. And four years later, researchers who
surveyed 31 state directors of special education found
that states vary dramatically in how they handle special
education identification within multitiered systems.
In many cases, the study found, states have no
regulations or recommendations to districts on how
long a student can stay on a tiered system before being
evaluated further. Those decisions are left to the district,
and they're not reported to the state. "In the states and
the districts, they will say it's important to reduce the
number of [special education] referrals. But what we're
finding is that we don't know if it's working" because no
one is systematically collecting the numbers, said Tina
Hudson, an assistant professor of special education at East
Tennessee State University and the study's lead author.
With all that response to intervention is asked to do,
does it still remain a powerful model for schools to follow?
Yes, said W. David Tilly, a deputy director at the Iowa
education department. Tilly was, and remains, one of

What are multitiered systems
of supports?
Districts differ in how they use this term. Some
use RTI and MTSS as synonyms, for example.
But usually, "multitiered systems of supports"
is used as an umbrella term that encompasses
both response to intervention and positive
behavioral interventions and supports. Schools
implementing MTSS are usually trying to tackle
both behavioral and academic concerns at the same
time, recognizing that they often go hand in hand:
A student who can't understand what's going on
in the classroom is more likely to act out, and a
student who is grappling with behavior problems is
not going to be able to focus on academics.

W. David Tilly

How are schools using
RTI and PBIS?
School districts have largely adopted the
multitiered framework as a schoolwide
improvement process because of its focus
on screening all children, improving overall
instruction, and making decisions based on
data. RTI has a stronger research base for early
reading, however. District leaders say that setting
up a multitiered framework for older children
and in different subject areas has been more
challenging because there are fewer researchbased interventions in those areas and because it
becomes more challenging with older students to
create time for interventions during the school day.

What does the Every Student Succeeds
Act say about MTSS?
The text of the law mentions multitiered
systems of supports only briefly, in the
context of helping students with disabilities
and English-language learners access
challenging academic standards. State
leaders may choose to use multitiered
frameworks as a way to organize school
improvement efforts in the improvement plans
they must submit to the U.S. Department of
Education next year. n

Deputy director, Iowa education
department

By Christina A. Samuels

PBIS predates RTI in its inclusion in federal law;
it was first introduced in the 1997 reauthorization
of the IDEA as a research-based framework for
supporting children with behavior disorders. As
with RTI, PBIS operates on tiers. All students
are taught certain behavioral expectations and
rewarded for following them, and students with
more needs are provided increasingly intensive
interventions.

[W]hen it's
implemented
well and
with fidelity,
we have
really good
data that this
works well
with lots
of kids."

n

What are positive behavioral
interventions and supports?

the biggest supporters of response to intervention, going
back to his days as an administrator at Heartland Area
Education Agency, which supports 54 Iowa districts.
Studies "point out that the effectiveness of any
evidence-based practice varies in relation to the fidelity
in which it's implemented," Tilly said. "A takeaway
from all of that [is that] when it's implemented well and
with fidelity, we have really good data that this works
well with lots of kids."
The challenge for the future, Tilly said, is to make sure
that multitiered models work well with all the other
reform efforts that schools must juggle.
Jose Castillo, who was trained as a school psychologist
and is now an official with the Florida Problem Solving/
Response to Intervention Project, says that responseto-intervention supporters need to do a better job
at helping schools balance all those initiatives. His
dream would be that the thinking behind response to
intervention-using data to make decisions, bolstering
general education while targeting interventions to
students in need-would eventually become second
nature for schools.
"You would ultimately never hear the term 'RTI' or
'MTSS' ever again, because it would just be a way of
thinking. It would just be a way of helping people get
everything they can out of their students," he said. n

Response to Intervention: Next Generation / www.edweek.org/go/RTI-nextgen

|

9


http://www.edweek.org/go/RTI-nextgen

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - December 14, 2016

Education Week - December 14, 2016
State-Level Showdowns Over ESSA
School Choice Is A Primary Focus For Ed. Sec. Pick
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Media Literacy Vs. Bogus News
States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
College Board Eases Access To Supports
Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
New Help for States Focused On Bolstering Schools
Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
TIFFANY ANDERSON: What Trauma-Informed Leadership Looks Like
BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - College Board Eases Access To Supports
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 25
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 27
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S5
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S6
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S7
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S8
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S10
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S14
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S15
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S19
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S20
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S21
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S22
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S23
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover4
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