Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28


COMMENTARY

The
Brain
Science
Behind
Trauma

T

he most remarkable feature of humankind is the flexibility of our
brains. This neuroplasticity-or
the brain's ability to adjust its
activities in response to new situations-is what has allowed our
species to make dramatic changes
from generation to generation.
Humans have evolved from small hunter-gatherer
clans to urban, digitally connected, international
communities. The most malleable part of our brain is
the neocortex, which can absorb and store more bits
of information than the brains of any other species.
This capacity for cognitive thinking allowed us to
create language, democracy, and thousands of other
inventions.
In fact, our most remarkable invention is public
education: a structured system to provide the social and cognitive stimulation children need to take
advantage of their brain's malleability and develop
knowledge and skills in mathematics, science, and
history. By providing structured cognitive and social
experiences, the U.S. public education system has
expressed the potential of millions of children, which
has, in turn, led to invention, creativity, and productivity that has transformed the world.
The key to the success of any educational experience is the capacity to "get to the cortex." Yet, each
year, nearly one-third of all children attending U.S.
public schools will have significantly impaired cortical functioning due to abuse, neglect, domestic violence, poverty, and other adversities. Understanding the effects of trauma on a child's brain and how
these effects alter the ability to learn is essential to
improving our public education system.
The brain has a set of crucial neural networks that
mediate stress response. When children have attentive caregiving at home and supported emotional,
motor, social, and cognitive experiences throughout
their early years, they develop a well-regulated stressresponse system. This leads to experiences in learning
and growth that shape a child in positive ways.
When trauma or unpredictable stress brought on
by poverty alters these systems, the neural networks
involved in the stress response stop working properly, which can lead to emotional, behavioral, and
learning problems. Trauma-related alterations to

STUDENT TRAUMA
How School Leaders Can Respond

Anthony Russo for Education Week

By Bruce D. Perry

"

When teachers understand
the effects of trauma,
they can begin to
better understand the
children who experience it."
these systems can shut down areas of the brain that
would normally control impulses of the neocortex.
This makes it much more difficult for children to
learn traditional cognitive content in school, including the ability to learn to read.
Children who have experienced trauma will be in
a persistent state of alarm and less capable of concentrating when they enter classrooms. Because of
this, they will pay more attention to the nonverbal
cues of a teacher, such as tone of voice, body posture, and facial expressions. Unless teachers adopt
some regulating practices for those students, such
as meditative breathing or rhythmic motor activity,
children will remain in the alarm state, impairing
cognitive learning.
The effects of trauma on student learning have

implications for understanding the achievement
gap. Even without overt experiences of trauma, children who live in stressful environments of poverty
don't internalize new information at the same rate
as children who enter the classroom in a calm state.
Year after year, traumatized students learn at a
slower rate, disengage, and ultimately fall behind-
a vicious cycle that all too often leads them to drop
out of school.
Fortunately, there are proven practices, programs,
and policies that can help prevent and heal stress
and trauma-related problems within a school community and in the classroom. When teachers understand the effects of trauma, they can begin to better
understand the children who experience it and effectively address behavioral problems. The integration of relationally based disciplinary models and
self-care for students, as well as secondary-stress-reduction practices for teachers and trauma-sensitive
policies within a school can all make a difference.
Successful neuroscience- and trauma-informed education practices, programs, and policies show that
when children feel safe and connected, our greatest
invention-public education-can be more effective
in helping express the potential in all students. n
BRUCE D. PERRY is the founder and senior fellow of
The ChildTrauma Academy in Houston and an adjunct
professor of psychiatry at the Feinberg School of Medicine at
Northwestern University.

| INSIDE |

19
20

28 | EDUCATION WEEK | December 14, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

A SUPERINTENDENT
TACKLES STUDENT STRESS
WHAT TRAUMA-INFORMED
LEADERSHIP LOOKS LIKE

21
22

AFTER-SCHOOL
STUDENT WELLNESS
SCHOOL LEADERSHIP IN THE
WAKE OF A NATURAL DISASTER

23

LETTERS TO
THE EDITOR


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - December 14, 2016

Education Week - December 14, 2016
State-Level Showdowns Over ESSA
School Choice Is A Primary Focus For Ed. Sec. Pick
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Media Literacy Vs. Bogus News
States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
College Board Eases Access To Supports
Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
New Help for States Focused On Bolstering Schools
Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
TIFFANY ANDERSON: What Trauma-Informed Leadership Looks Like
BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - College Board Eases Access To Supports
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 25
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 27
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S5
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S6
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S7
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S8
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S10
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S14
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S15
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S19
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S20
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S21
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S22
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S23
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com