Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 22


STUDENT TRAUMA
How School Leaders Can Respond

School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster
Healing Through Creative Expression

A School Shaped by Trauma

I

By Tracy Franke

By Heidi Durham

E

Elaine Thompson/AP-File

magine reliving the most painful moments of your life again
ven before a lethal disasand again. When a landslide took the lives of 43 people in
ter struck my small, rural
Oso, Wash., in 2014, children at nearby Darrington Elemencommunity, trauma-intary School were left struggling, arguing and misbehaving,
formed practices had
unable to focus, and sometimes missing school entirely. One
been a part of our school
11-year-old girl, who had already tragically lost two family
culture. As a teacher, and
members, was so aggressive on the football field that she
now an elementary school
was nearly benched as a result.
principal, I have become
After the landslide, Darrington Elementary School reached out to Art
increasingly aware over the years of the comwith Heart, a nonprofit of which I am the CEO. Our mission is to help
plex trauma many of my students face on an
children overcome trauma through creative expression. Through theraongoing basis.
peutic books and programs, we help reshape emotions and behavior with
But while our local clinic provided medichunks of clay, buckets of paint, and the incredible power of children's
cal services, the closest counseling programs
own deep wells of creativity. By calling on principles of trauma-informed
were more than 40 miles away. These mentalcare, we train adults and work with children to root through the deep
health services were not accessible to a majorpain they've experienced and draw it out, one page, one piece of art, one
ity of our students and families, who could not
sculpture at a time.
afford the gas to make the trip. We were forMegan Lucas, a counselor who began working with the school after
tunate to begin working with outside organithe landslide, used our resources weekly
in every classroom, helping children
work through their emotions in order
to be more present and focused in their
academic lives.
By combining art therapy with narrative and cognitive behavioral therapy, as
well as concepts of social-emotional learning, Art with Heart has created opportunities for children to gain self-awareness
and empathy while learning to behave
more cooperatively with their peers and
teachers. Art therapy allows children and
teens to create a record of healing in their
workbooks, charting where they've come
from and where they want to go.
And the evidence bears out what we've
seen: Psychiatrist Bruce D. Perry found
that areas of the brain can be reshaped
and reorganized through activities that
include touch and movement-the foundation of creative expression. Just as
trauma is experienced-through nonverbal sensation-it can be released.
The March 22, 2014, mudslide in Oso, Wash., killed 43 people and devastated the nearby town of
Because trauma can be shadowy and Darrington, 50 miles northeast of Seattle.
hard to pin down, creative expression is
a way to access what children can't see or say. It's like a back door to
zations to provide much-needed professional
healing. In a safe environment, students can learn that taking risks in
support for our students and their families,
art might elicit emotions they can share with pride. Having a piece of
including North Counties Family Services, the
art to symbolize their emotional process is also a motivator. More art
Darrington Prevention Intervention Commucan translate into hope for the future and healing that lasts a lifetime.
nity Coalition, Catholic Community Services,
Further, a recent study from Drexel University suggests that the
and the Sauk Suiattle Indian Tribe, whose
simple act of art-making, regardless of skill level, reduces cortisol (or
mental-health counselor would also work
stress levels) in the brain. By making art, children learn about themwith non-Native community members.
selves and widen their perspective, creating empathy and deeper enAnd then the tragedy on March 22, 2014,
gagement. For a child who has lost a parent or survived a mass shootwas a game-changer. Our community expeing, using expressive arts in school might be the connection they need.
rienced a natural disaster that took the lives
It's hard to imagine the future when you're busy reliving the past, so
of our friends, family members, and students.
helping children find those connections and build support is critical to
Homes were destroyed and the main highdeveloping their belief in what's possible for their lives.
way out of the community was under tons of
But they can't do that work alone, and they often can't do it with
mud. There was no landline-phone or interwords. Rebuilding their home using popsicle sticks or choosing colors
net service. Within hours of the slide, we had
that best represent how they feel lets children safely interact with
news crews from around the world, along
emotions they might otherwise find overwhelming.
with disaster-relief agencies descending on
Creative expression is, of course, one of many ways that school counselour town of roughly 1,400 residents.
ors and others can help children overcome trauma. Some children need
The Highway 530 Landslide in Oso,
more intervention than a school group can provide, and having a clear
Wash., was a traumatic event. It still is. It
path of referral is an important aspect to serving children in any capacity.
continues to shape the lives of not only our
However, creative-expression programs can set children on the path tostudents, staff, and community members,
ward a safe, healthy, and deeply successful adulthood. And, as Darrington
but also of anyone who drives through the
Elementary Principal Tracy Franke has said, "I don't believe that it takes
mudslide zone on the repaired highway.
a tragedy to provide opportunities for students to express themselves." n
The slide is a shared traumatic event for
the members of our school and community.
HEIDI DURHAM is the CEO of Art with Heart, a Seattle-based nonprofit organization
Along with the impact of this single event,
dedicated to helping children overcome trauma through creative expression.
our students continue to experience difficult
22 | EDUCATION WEEK | December 14, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

and stressful situations in their daily lives.
And just as importantly, our staff members
also experience similar complex traumas.
During the time immediately following
the slide, it became apparent that we needed
immediate mental-health support to work
through this event. The death of two students was especially difficult. One of the
students was the child of a teacher who then
had to take leave, so we also lost an important member of our small staff.
As support poured in from around the
county, state, and nation, and we began to
process the multitude of emotions our students were experiencing, it became evident
that the slide itself was just one of the traumatic events our students needed to process.
The slide magnified the other circumstances
that were impeding their ability to focus on
school and achieve to their full potential. As I
talked with the staff, it became apparent that
we needed ongoing training and support to
address the impact of trauma on our students.
However, students were not the only
people struggling to cope with this tragedy. With the additional toll the slide took
on our staff, and the secondary trauma of
working with our traumatized students
and families, it became obvious that our
staff also needed support to process the
trauma we were individually experiencing. Without the staff recognizing and
using strategies to stay regulated, it would
be nearly impossible to help our students
move toward positive strategies.
In addition to our work with Art with
Heart, one such source of support was
CLEAR-Collaborative Learning for Educational Achievement and Resilience-a
staff-development and -support model.
Through professional development and
coaching for our staff, this program has
provided our staff the language and strategies to use with students who are having a
difficult time focusing on their schoolwork
and making safe and productive decisions.
More importantly, CLEAR has empowered the staff to understand that behavior
is adaptive and need-driven. It gives them
the permission and space to regulate their
own emotional experience first, rather than
simply reacting to students' behavior. This
program promotes the idea that there is a
biological basis for behavior and emphasizes
the importance of teaching the brain science
of the stress response to staff and students.
This allows us to build safety, trust, and positive relationships within our school.
Students need to understand that what
they are feeling is OK, but that they are accountable for their actions. Rather than approaching discipline with the deficit-focused
and often punitive nature of most practices,
we as educators must hold students to high
standards and expectations, while showing
grace and compassion. We must make sure
all individuals in the school have the tools
they need to regulate themselves, engage in
teaching and learning, and be successful. n
TRACY FRANKE has been an educator for
27 years. She is in her sixth year as the principal
of Darrington Elementary School, a pre-K-8 school
of 300 students located in the foothills of the
Cascades Range in Washington state.


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - December 14, 2016

Education Week - December 14, 2016
State-Level Showdowns Over ESSA
School Choice Is A Primary Focus For Ed. Sec. Pick
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Media Literacy Vs. Bogus News
States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
College Board Eases Access To Supports
Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
New Help for States Focused On Bolstering Schools
Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
TIFFANY ANDERSON: What Trauma-Informed Leadership Looks Like
BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - College Board Eases Access To Supports
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 25
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 27
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S5
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S6
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S7
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S8
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S10
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S14
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S15
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S19
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S20
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S21
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S22
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S23
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com