Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18


In Some States, a Tug of War Over ESSA Plans
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

State addresses and budget messages. ESSA goes into effect next fall.
Political scientists have long described state education oversight as a
tangled web of elected and appointed
technocrats and politicians, many
with duplicative and conflicting roles
and loyalties.

ests that supports a relatively coherent vision of what the role of public
education will be in promoting the
well-being of the state," said Jeffrey
Henig, a political scientist at Teachers College, Columbia University,
who has studied education governance issues.
ESSA touches on several key cornerstones of education policy such

from the federal government from
provisions of the NCLB law.
Colorado's legislature six years ago
wrote into their law books several
key provisions in order to qualify
for Race to the Top money, including
that the state will participate in an
"assessment consortium."
"We went beyond what we really
needed to do to be eligible for Race

"

We're in a little bit of a difficult situation. We will write our state ESSA plan,
but what the legislature does is up to the legislature.
PATRICK CHAPMAN
Colorado Department of Education

Compounding the problem is the
rapidly rotating cast of characters
who have taken charge of state education agencies and state Senate and
House education committees in recent years. And more than a quarter
of the nation's state education chiefs
have been in office for less than year.
"What's going to be important is
whether states have a political culture and alignment of political inter-

WHO CALLS THE SHOTS?
The Every Student Succeeds Act requires a number of state
entities to be involved in the drafting of state accountability
plans for submission to the U.S. Department of Education.
But who has final say at the state level depends on the
state and what political powers its constitution has granted
leadership bodies when it comes to education policy.
LEGISLATURES
ESSA requires that state departments of education consult with
legislators before sending their state plans to federal Education
Department. Lawmakers likely would have to approve any major
changes to state policy-and since they hold the purse strings,
that gives them significant policy sway. And in recent years, many
legislatures have passed laws that decrease the power that state
boards in key areas, such as setting learning standards and writing
state accountability systems.
GOVERNORS
States' chief executives will have 30 days to review ESSA plans. And
in many states, governors already have added clout on the education
front through the ability to appoint state board of education members,
secretaries of education, and state superintendents who oversee
drafting plans.
STATE BOARDS OF EDUCATION
Board members, who may be appointed or elected depending on the
state, will be among those to sign off on ESSA plans sent to the Education
Department. Board members typically have a key role in setting state
learning standards and crafting accountability systems and teacherevaluation systems, many of the key areas of flexibility under ESSA.
STATE CHIEFS
State school chiefs are in charge of the state education agencies
that are drafting the ESSA plans and which will have to execute
those plans once they're approved. In many states, they've also been
playing an aggressive role in building public consensus on what
those plans should include.
SOURCE: Education Week

18 | EDUCATION WEEK | December 14, 2016 | www.edweek.org

as assessments, accountability, and
teacher quality. While some state
constitutions put those tasks within
the orbit of state boards of education,
other states' constitutions are not as
clear. After a series of very public battles over standardized tests, legislatures in some states either overwrote
boards' policies or have stripped
boards outright of their powers. Some
governors have appointed their own
education advisers, complicating the
political landscape.

Consultation Required
Unlike its predecessor, the No
Child Left Behind Act, ESSA dictates that legislatures and governors be "meaningfully consulted"
and that governors have 30 days to
review a state accountability plan
before it's submitted to the Education Department. The National
Conference of State Legislatures
and the National Governors Association pushed for such a provision
after several state boards adopted
Common Core State Standards
without legislative approval.
Any effort to push through bold
education reforms under ESSA will
require a savvy leader with political
capital, a vision that resonates with a
broad coalition, and money to spend.
National membership groups such
as teachers' unions, the Council of
Chief State School Officers, the National Governors Association, and
the NCSL are rushing to mediate
between warring factions, placing
legislators, board members, and superintendents in the same rooms to
work out their differences.
"It's really an opportune time for
states to rethink their education visions and it'll take all the policymakers sitting at the same table to do
that," said Michelle Exstrom, the education program director for the NCSL.
In such a turbulent political climate, analysts fear some states may
not take full advantage of their newfound flexibilities under ESSA and
instead will stick with their waivers
from Race to the Top, the very plans
that states griped were overprescribed by the feds.
For some states, such as Colorado,
state board members and state superintendents are already resigned
to the fact that their plan will look
similar to the waiver they received

to the Top," said Patrick Chapman,
the director of the state's federal
programs.
So despite the antitesting fervor
that's sparked one of the country's
largest opt-out movements-a large
part of it in response to Colorado's
use of the common core-those issues
won't likely be addressed in its ESSA
plan, department officials concede.
Colorado is also dealing with leadership turnover. The state's last education commissioner resigned earlier
this year after just four months in
the job, citing stress on his out-ofstate family. And in this year's election, the state's Democrats seized
control of the board, which appoints
the superintendent.
"We're in a little bit of a difficult
situation," Chapman said, pointing out that the state's constitution
places education policy under the
direction of the state board and that
the superintendent is a member of
the governor's cabinet, even though
the state board appoints that person.
"We will write our state ESSA plan,
but what the legislature does is up to
the legislature."
California lawmakers, like those in
other states in recent decades, have
reduced the power of local school officials and placed more of it in the
hands of the state legislature, the
elected superintendent, and governor-appointed board members. After
years of infighting between Democratic and Republican officials, the
state's Democrats this year are using
the budget and ESSA to devolve
many powers back to local officials.
"If you don't know who's in charge,
then who's held accountable?" said
Mike Kirst, the chairman of the state's
board of education. "Everyone points
their fingers to the other person. I
think power got overtilted to the state
level. California is too big and too complex and too multiethnic for the state
to be running the details of education
for what we were trying to do."
That's upset accountability hawks
in the state who don't trust local officials to follow through on turnaround
strategies to close achievement gaps
between black and Latino students
and their white peers.
Indiana, which is dominated by
Republicans, has taken the exact
opposite approach.
Under the state's 2012 NCLB
waiver, lawmakers sidestepped

Glenda Ritz, the state's Democratic
superintendent, to usher in a bold
accountability agenda heavily reliant on the state's standardized test
known as iSTEP. (Ritz lost her reelection bid in November.)
But a series of technical glitches
and botched test scores led Gov. Mike
Pence to place a statewide moratorium on the accountability system.
The legislature earlier this year appointed a task force made up of 23
education leaders and two state legislators to determine the future role
of assessments under ESSA.
A night before the final meeting,
however, a group of eight principals,
local superintendents, and teachers
defected from the group, creating
their own plan that would, among
other things, empower teachers to
grade the state standardized test
and that would replace the exam
within the next year.
The plan was passed, but now it
will have to go to the legislature for
approval.
"Most of the legislators would agree
that I would find it very difficult as
superintendent to write legislation
on health care in this state," said
Scot Croner, the superintendent of
Blackford Schools. "I think it's the
same situation for our legislators,
with not having the intricate knowledge of day-to-day activities of the
best practice for student learning, it's
very difficult to try to legislate those
things. We need to delegate some of
that work to the state department
and the state school board and allow
the rulemaking process to get down
to specifics."

Crafting Legislation
State Sen. Dennis Kruse, a Republican, who chairs the Indiana Senate's education committee, said he
will likely draft legislation with broad
statements and leave it up to Jennifer McCormick, the Republican who
will take office as the new state superintendent, to make final decisions
over how the exam is administered.
"What we passed was too detailed to have the legislature pass
it," Kruse said. "As legislators, we ...
can't get into the weeds. We've got
500 bills we will process here. "
In Louisiana, local educators said
they attempted to work with the
state's Republican-dominated board
of education and its appointed superintendent during the ESSA engagement process, overseen partly
by an accountability commission
created by the state's legislature
several years ago.
Frustrated about not being heard,
they appealed to the governor, who
soon commissioned his own ESSA
advisory board.
Earlier this month, the superintendent presented his ESSA plan
to the board. It's unclear how or
whether the governor and state
board will merge their plans.
"I think that there's a view by
many that there's not much flexibility being afforded," said Scott
M. Richard, the executive director
of the Louisiana School Boards Association. "There's just going to be
more of the same."


http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - December 14, 2016

Education Week - December 14, 2016
State-Level Showdowns Over ESSA
School Choice Is A Primary Focus For Ed. Sec. Pick
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Media Literacy Vs. Bogus News
States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
College Board Eases Access To Supports
Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
New Help for States Focused On Bolstering Schools
Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
TIFFANY ANDERSON: What Trauma-Informed Leadership Looks Like
BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - College Board Eases Access To Supports
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 25
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 27
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S5
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S6
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S7
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S8
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S10
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S14
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S15
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S19
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S20
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S21
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S22
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S23
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover4
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