Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 15


SNAPSHOT

|

Regulation

Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details
On School Accountability, Testing
By Alyson Klein
Before leaving office next month, the Obama administration
is finishing up rules for the Every Student Succeeds Act,
including in the areas of accountability and testing.
The administration released final regulations for
accountability on Nov. 28 that seek to address state and school
officials' biggest criticisms with draft regulations, released in
May, which drew more than 20,000 comments from educators,
advocates, and the general public.
These regulations give states more time to get their systems
in place before identifying schools that are struggling, and offer
more flexibility for states when it comes to school ratings, and
dealing with schools with high testing opt-out rates.
By contrast, the department didn't make major changes to
its testing regulations, which were released Dec. 7. The draft
version of those regulations was largely crafted earlier this year
by a panel of educators and advocates through a process known
as "negotiated rulemaking." The department also released
regulations for innovative tests under ESSA.
It's unclear whether the incoming Trump administration and
Congress will decide to keep these regulations on the books,
make changes to them, or move to get rid of them entirely.

Accountability Regulations
School Ratings
* What ESSA Says: States must have an accountability
system that includes both academic factors (like test scores,
graduation rates, and English-language proficiency) and at
least one school quality or student success indicator (like
school climate, access to advanced coursework, or chronic
absenteeism). They must identify schools for "comprehensive
improvement" (lowest-performing schools and those where
less than two-thirds of students graduate) and "targeted
improvement" (schools that might be doing well overall, but
where subgroups of students are struggling).
* What the Final Regulations Say: States can use the
ratings in ESSA-including "comprehensive" improvement
and "targeted" support-as their summative ratings. They
don't have to go as far as an overall number or A through F
grade, unless they want to. States also can use a "dashboard" to
explain how schools are doing on each of the different indicators
that make up their accountability systems.

School Quality Indicators
* What ESSA Says: In addition to test scores, graduation
rates, and English-language proficiency, states have to hold
schools accountable for another factor that gets at school quality
or students' opportunity to learn, including school climate,
access to advanced coursework, access to arts,or absenteeism,
among others.
* What the Final Regulations Say: States can pick any factor
that research has shown has a positive impact on student
learning, as defined by a host of things like grades, credit
accumulation, postsecondary enrollment, persistence, and
performance in advanced classes.

Student Groups
* What ESSA Says: States get to set their own minimum
"n-size." That's a technical term for the number of students
from a particular group that a school must have in order to be
held accountable for their performance. For instance, if a state's
n-size is 20 and a school has only 17 4th graders in special
education, that school wouldn't have to include those students'
scores for accountability or report their data because the sample
size is too small.
* What the Final Regulations Say: States can use any n-size
they want, but those that want to go over 30 have to show the
impact of that decision, giving data on the percentage of schools
that would be held accountable for subgroup performance under
whatever number they want to use, versus the percentage that
would have been held accountable for subgroup performance if
the n-size were 30.

Identifying Schools With Consistently
Underperforming Subgroups
* What ESSA Says: States have to identify schools
where subgroups of students (such as English-language
learners or students in special education) are "consistently
underperforming" compared to their peers.
* What the Final Regulations Say: States are still supposed
to base their definition of "consistent underperformance" on no
more than two years of performance, but if they really want
to look over a longer time frame, they can, as long as they can
explain how more time will help students in a subgroup get the
support they need.

Testing Participation Rate/Opt-Outs
* What ESSA Says: Schools need to test 95 percent of their
students, both for the whole school and for different subgroups
of students, just as they did under the No Child Left Behind
Act, which ESSA replaced. If a school doesn't hit that threshold,
the state gets to decide what happens, not the U.S. Department
of Education.
* What the Final Regulations Say: States that come up
with their own system for dealing with opt-outs get the
leeway to develop different remedies to address different
degrees of low-test participation. That means states can
propose to do something less dramatic for a school that
barely missed the 95 percent for a single subgroup of
students, as opposed to a school where say, just 10 percent
of students took the test. Whatever the state comes up
with, though, has to be "sufficiently rigorous" to fix the
school's participation problem.

English-Language Proficiency
* What ESSA Says: States need to hold schools accountable
for helping English-language learners become proficient.
* What the Final Regulations Say: States have to come up
with a "research-based" maximum timeline for ELLs to become
proficient in English. The idea is to encourage schools to make
sufficient progress each year in helping ELLs master their new
language.

Timelines
* What ESSA Says: The new law, which passed in December
of 2015, is supposed to go into effect in the 2017-18 school year.
The 2016-17 school year is for transition and planning.

* What the Final Regulations Say: States essentially get
a one-year extension on identifying key groups of schools
for extra attention and support. They are now supposed
to identify their lowest-performing schools and schools
with really low graduation rates (those in "comprehensive
improvement") in the 2018-19 school year. Also in 2018-19,
they must identify schools with low-performing subgroups
for so-called "targeted" support. But states now have until
the 2019-20 school year to identify schools where subgroups
of students are "consistently underperforming" compared to
their peers for "targeted support." State accountability plans
now are due April 3 or Sept. 18.

Testing Regulations General Assessment
Regulations
* What ESSA Says: States must test students in reading and
math every year between 3 and 8 and once in high school, just
like under the No Child Left Behind Act. Districts may choose
a nationally recognized test, such as the SAT or ACT, in lieu
of the state's high school test for accountability purposes, as
long as they have the state's permission. There are also special
rules pertaining to tests for English-language learners and
students in special education. For instance, no more than 1
percent of students in a particular state should be given tests
for students with severe cognitive disabilities, unless there is a
waiver from the department.
* What the Final Regulations Say: The regulations seek to
flesh out these provisions, for instance by defining what kinds
of assessments would be considered "nationally recognized."
They also call on states to come up with a definition of "severe
cognitive disabilities," and they explain how states must go
about applying for a waiver from the 1 percent cap.

Innovative Assessment Pilot
* What ESSA Says: Up to seven states can apply to try
out new forms of testing-such as performance tasks-in
a handful of districts before taking them statewide. States
must make sure these new kinds of tests provide comparable
results to the state assessment. And, as they are piloting
these new approaches, states must include a representative
sample of English-language leaners and students in special
education.
* What the Final Regulations Say: The regulations spell out
how states can make sure that these tests are comparable to
the state assessment and among districts.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education

Get a sneak peek at the new
Leaders for our 2017 season

CÉSAR MORALES
Superintendent, Oxnard Elementary School District
Oxnard, Calif.

Superintendent César Morales leveraged his district's
1-to-1 tablet initiative to create a massive bilingualliteracy campaign and make tens of thousands of
electronic books in English and Spanish accessible
to students and their families in Oxnard, Calif.

LIVE EVENT
MARCH 30-31, 2017
WASHINGTON, D.C.

EDUCATION WEEK | December 14, 2016 | www.edweek.org | 15


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - December 14, 2016

Education Week - December 14, 2016
State-Level Showdowns Over ESSA
School Choice Is A Primary Focus For Ed. Sec. Pick
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Media Literacy Vs. Bogus News
States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
College Board Eases Access To Supports
Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
New Help for States Focused On Bolstering Schools
Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
TIFFANY ANDERSON: What Trauma-Informed Leadership Looks Like
BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - States Aim to Bolster School Counselors’ Thinning Ranks
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Debate Renews Over Seat Belts In Buses After Deadly Crash
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17 Teacher-Prep Programs Meet New Accreditation Bar
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science GapsSNAPSHOT: TIMSS/PISA Results Highlight Global Math And Science Gaps
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - College Board Eases Access To Supports
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Students Interact With Scientists At ‘Teen Science Cafes’
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Congress Faces Range of Education Issues in Upcoming Session
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Final ESSA Rules Flesh Out Details on School Accountability, Testing
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TERRY B. GRIER: A Superintendent Tackles Student Stress
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - BRUCE D. PERRY: The Brain Science Behind Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - ALI SMITH: After-School Student Wellness
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - School Leadership in the Wake of a Natural Disaster HEIDI DURHAM: Healing Through Creative Expression TRACY FRANKE: A School Shaped by Trauma
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 25
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 27
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - 28
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - CT4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S1
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S2
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S4
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S5
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S6
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S7
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S8
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S9
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S10
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S11
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S12
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S13
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S14
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S15
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S16
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S17
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S18
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S19
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S20
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S21
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S22
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S23
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - S24
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover3
Education Week - December 14, 2016 - SCover4
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