Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 24

COMMENTARY

W

18
WE MADE THIS TOO HARD

18
WHAT TIME OUT OF THE
CLASSROOM TAUGHT ME

19
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Sexual Assault Prevention
Needs to Start Early

By Lee Paiva

e are in the midst
of a seismic shift
in consciousness
around sexual
harassment and
assault. The
sweeping allegations against
Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein-more
than 100 women have accused him of sexual
harassment and assault since October-was
only the beginning. A growing group of highprofile actors, television executives, politicians,
academics, news editors, and journalists have
been accused of sexual aggressions, including actor Kevin Spacey, comedian Louis C.K.,
and Republican Senate candidate Roy Moore.
Every hour brings scores of testimonies from
women and men publicly sharing their experiences, including on social media through the
#MeToo campaign.
But amid the accusations and public outrage, there has been scant attention paid to
how to prevent sexual harassment or assault.
Yes, we have workplace policies and awareness campaigns, and many employers are
requiring some form of harassment training
for their employees. But these trainings are
largely ineffective. They don't provide honest
and comprehensive education about sexual
and gender power dynamics. And they are
largely aimed at limiting an employer's liability. Most critically, we aren't teaching
young people the prevention strategies they
should learn beginning in elementary school.
Here's what we should pay attention to:
Teaching self defense and empowerment
to young people decreases sexual violence.
Multiple studies have proven that comprehensive safety education is the most effective
and long-term solution to harassment and
assault prevention. But it takes trained educators to help students realize the strength
they have to fight this epidemic.
Like most, I never received any warning
about sexual predators. At age 16, I had the
brilliant idea to hitchhike across the country alone. One evening in a Colorado hippie
commune, I woke up with a drunken housemate on top of me. Although I struggled and
repeatedly said no, his force and mass were
then too much for me. It took many years for
me to call the incident rape, and even longer to understand why, in a house filled with
people, I didn't call out for help.
It wasn't until I took a self-defense course
years later that what had happened in Colorado became clear. The course, which taught
an empowering model of self defense, opened
up another world for me. I learned how to
listen to my gut and register dangerous situations. I learned de-escalation and negotia-

Getty

tion skills that I applied in my everyday life,
not just when I felt my safety was at stake.
I learned I have the right to say "no" loudly
and publicly in response to unwanted behavior, however minor, and if my no was not respected, I learned physical skills to stop the
behavior.
In 2009, building on my work as a selfdefense instructor, I founded the rape-prevention nonprofit No Means No Worldwide
and began adapting the methods to one of
the most sexually violent places in the world:
Nairobi, Kenya, where 1 in 4 girls is raped
every year.
All instructors are young men and women
from local communities who complete a
training before teaching an empowerment,
self-defense, and intervention program to
secondary school students (typically ages 10
to 20). While the girls learn assertiveness,
boundary-setting rules, and self defense,
the boys learn to challenge rape culture, ask
for consent, and use bystander intervention
when they hear someone planning or bragging about a rape or witness an assault in
progress.
To be clear: In no way do we stress meeting
violence with violence. Students are encouraged to follow their intuition in an attack
situation. The goal of self-defense empower-

24 | EDUCATION WEEK | November 29, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

"

Teaching self defense
and empowerment to
young people
decreases sexual
violence."

ment is to get away safely and tell someone
about the situation. The key is giving students the skills-both mentally and physically-to stand up to inappropriate behavior
at a young age and create a culture of mutual respect.
Since 2009, the research we've conducted
in collaboration with Stanford and Johns
Hopkins universities has shown that wherever our courses have been taught to girls,
rape rates have decreased by half. One
2014 study found that more than half of
the nearly 2,000 high school girls in Nairobi
who finished the self-defense course had deflected sexual harassment or rape. Similarly,
after taking the training, of the 35 percent
of adolescent boys who witnessed a sexual
assault in progress, three-quarters of them
successfully intervened to stop it. Similar
self-defense approaches at several colleges
in the United States and Canada reduced
the risk of sexual assault among students by
as much as half.
At home, K-12 schools have an important
role to play in sexual-violence prevention. According to the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 6 boys and
1 in 4 girls are sexually abused before the
age of 18, but it doesn't have to be this way.
All children need techniques to challenge
rape culture and to learn how to deal with
inappropriate comments, unwanted touching, coercion, and assault.
As children grow, educators-be they
teachers or school counselors-must create
space for honest and sincere dialogue about
age-old sexual power dynamics. Since most
schools don't offer these kinds of classes yet,
to do so will require bold, innovative leadership on the part of school leaders. They will
need to advocate and fundraise for sexualassault-awareness curricula, as well as recruit trained professionals well prepared to
teach empowerment and self-defense strategies that are proven effective. There may be
naysayers and other red tape, but these are
skills students will use over the course of a
lifetime.
This is not about blaming women for their
clothing choices or labeling young men as
rapists. Nor is it about revenge or turning
young women into battle-ready maidens. It
is about providing a countering voice to the
violence and negative gender stereotyping
that boys and girls experience beginning in
puberty and remain trapped in for much of
their lives. It is about changing our culture
through education, one step at a time. n
LEE PAIVA is the CEO and founder of No Means No
Worldwide, a rape-prevention nonprofit based on
San Francisco. She is a Rainer Arnhold Fellow of the
Mulago Foundation, which provides funding for social
entrepreneurs working to fight poverty.


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 29, 2017

Education Week - November 29, 2017
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Schools Struggle With Hacking, Other Cyber Threats
Schools Not Immune From Harassment
Common Core Lives On When States Revise Their Standards, Study Says
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Opioid’s Impact Hits Schools Hard
How Mixed-Gender Classes Might Help Boys Improve Reading Skills
Happy Birthday, NCES! Agency Turns 150
New Analyses Boost Claims of Lasting Benefits From Pre-K
Motion on Tax Plans With Effects on K-12
Democrats Grill Ed. Dept. Nominees on School Choice Priorities
DeVos on Workforce Readiness, Alternatives to College
DEB HARDING: What Time Out of the Classroom Taught Me About STEM
JENNY FROEHLE: We Made This Too Hard
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
LEE PAIVA: Sexual Assault Prevention Needs to Start Early
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - Common Core Lives On When States Revise Their Standards, Study Says
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 2
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 3
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 5
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - Opioid’s Impact Hits Schools Hard
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - How Mixed-Gender Classes Might Help Boys Improve Reading Skills
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - Happy Birthday, NCES! Agency Turns 150
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - New Analyses Boost Claims of Lasting Benefits From Pre-K
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 10
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 11
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 12
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 13
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 14
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - Democrats Grill Ed. Dept. Nominees on School Choice Priorities
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - DeVos on Workforce Readiness, Alternatives to College
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 17
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - JENNY FROEHLE: We Made This Too Hard
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 20
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 22
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - 23
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - LEE PAIVA: Sexual Assault Prevention Needs to Start Early
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - CW4
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - SCover1
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - SCover2
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S1
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S2
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S3
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S4
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S5
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S6
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S7
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S8
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S9
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S10
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S11
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S12
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S13
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S14
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S15
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - S16
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - SCover3
Education Week - November 29, 2017 - SCover4
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