Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 5

Some Better Bets for Anti-Bias Strategies
Research suggests stand-alone anti-bias training may not
change long-term behavior. For leaders working to make their
schools more equitable, studies suggest some alternatives to
common pitfalls.

Instead of

Try
Integrating training in a

Providing anti-bias training
as one of the school's list
of teacher professional
development sessions.

comprehensive diversity plan
that involves teachers and other
adults at school in reviewing
policy, practices and structures
that can promote bias, not just
a stand-alone PD session.

Setting goals for anti-bias
training based on the program
you adopt.

²ƵɈɈǞȁǐȺȯƵƧǞ˛ƧǐȌƊǶȺƦƊȺƵƮ
on the needs of your school
and any problems you have
ǞƮƵȁɈǞ˛ƵƮɈȌƦƵƊƮƮȲƵȺȺƵƮ‫خ‬
Acknowledge that

Focusing on participants'

conversations about bias will

ƧȌǿǏȌȲɈƮɐȲǞȁǐƮǞǏ˛ƧɐǶɈ

be uncomfortable and give

conversations about race and

participants tools to manage

bias.

their emotions while accepting
feedback.
Emphasizing a few clear
strategies for managing bias
with examples of what anti-

Giving a detailed checklist

biased awareness and behavior

of recommendations for

would look like in practice for

participants to use to avoid bias.

different groups within the
school (e.g. math teachers,
guidance counselors, discipline
ȌǏ˛ƧƵȲȺ‫خف‬
Connecting training evaluations

Measuring the success of
training by participation,
positive reviews, or end-oftraining surveys.

back to the school's larger
diversity goals, such as
increasing the proportion of
students of color referred to
advanced courses or shrinking
discipline gaps.

SOURCE: Developing & Delivering Effective Anti-Bias Training: Challenges &
Recommendations

scandal involving disproportionate
discipline). By contrast, more-effective business diversity programs:
* Engage people voluntarily,
such as a recruiting drive aimed at
finding more promising students of
color for colleges or gifted education
programs;
* Ensure people interact with
those of different groups, such
as setting up mentoring programs
involving people of different races or
backgrounds and cross-training programs in which teachers or administrators from different groups work
with each other as equals toward a
common goal; and
* Encourage social accountability, such as letting teachers
know they will discuss their decisions on, say, student grades or discipline referrals with peers. Studies
have found this can reduce racial
or other disparities in how teachers
make decisions.
One meta-analysis published last
month of anti-bias interventions
on more than 20,000 people high-

How can school leaders get parents to immunize
their children against COVID-19-and other
resurging childhood illnesses?

lighted one thing that does tend to
counteract unconscious bias: exposing yourself to people who defy those
stereotypes.
Nancy Gutiérrez, president and
chief executive officer of the Leadership Academy which helped Des
Moines in its equity audit, found
schools that do provide anti-bias
training can benefit from using
interracial teams to lead the conversations, to provide broader perspectives and to prevent individual
teachers of color from becoming
overly called on to represent their racial or ethnic groups.
" There's a lot of will, a lot of desire
out there right now to do something
... but I think that sometimes we overestimate our skill to facilitate this
work, " Gutiérrez said. " When you're
talking about race and identity, you'd
have to be at the intersections of who
we are as people, and that takes a
lot of planning and careful facilitation to truly engage in ways that will
open up and deepen the conversation
rather than shut it down. "

By Sarah D. Sparks
A vaccine against the coronavirus that causes
COVID-19 could be broadly available by late
spring, and to some teachers in schools even
before that. But schools are already grappling
with the problem of how to convince families to
get their children immunized-not just against
COVID-19, but the other childhood diseases
already at risk of dangerous outbreaks.
While the coronavirus pandemic has
heightened schools' focus on infection spread and
containment, educators can take a key leadership
role in preventing new outbreaks by encouraging
existing childhood immunizations and laying the
groundwork for a future COVID-19 vaccine.
Regularly scheduled childhood immunizations
are down-way down-since the pandemic
started last spring, and disease experts warn that a
host of childhood diseases, some more infectious
and deadly to children than COVID-19, have
fallen below the threshold for the protection of
herd immunity.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
reported in May that the number of measles
immunizations given each week crashed from
more than 2,000 before March to less than 300
through April. And this month, the Blue Cross Blue
Shield Association of America, one of the nation's
largest health insurance providers, reported that
from January through September, childhood
immunizations for DTaP (diptheria, tetanus, and
acellular pertussis) and MMR (measles, mumps,
and rubella) had dropped 26 percent, while polio
vaccine administrations were down 16 percent
compared to 2019. The health group noted that
those immunization rates were below the herd
immunity threshold for the diseases covered in
both MMR and DTaP for both 2019 and 2020 and
were close to the threshold for polio.
Vaccination rates in the United States are high
and stable compared to other countries, but
" they tend to be geographically clumpy, so that
people who decline the vaccination tend to live in
the same neighborhoods. And that makes them
vulnerable, " said Gretchen Chapman, a Rutgers
University psychologist who studies how people
make health decisions.
Experience from prior and ongoing outbreaks
of measles and whooping cough suggest school
leaders should not rely on legal requirements to
ensure their students get immunized. The United
States saw measles outbreaks confirmed in 31
states last year, with 1,282 cases-the highest
number of cases since 1992 and a more than
10-fold jump in only two years. It prompted state
legislatures to tighten personal belief waivers in
state laws that let families opt out of vaccines for
nonmedical and nonreligious reasons.
But studies found these legal changes may not
have changed behavior. For example, when states
stopped allowing waivers for immunizations
based on personal or philosophical beliefs, there
was a rise in the number of waivers requested
for religious or medical reasons, and the overall
numbers of opt outs didn't change much. Saad
Omer, professor of infectious diseases at the Yale
School of Medicine and of epidemiology and

colleagues found that while state vaccination
mandates were associated with higher
vaccination rates, social norms seemed to drive
people's decisions to immunize their children
more than legal requirements did.
For existing vaccines, it's proven very difficult
to change people's thoughts and feelings about
whether vaccines are safe and beneficial.
However, for a newly developed vaccine,
providing information can help.
" This is an excellent opportunity to improve
scientific literacy ... to talk to the students about,
how did vaccines get developed? How do we know
that they're effective? Chapman said.
Some studies have found that when schools and
pediatricians alerted parents early and reminded
them often about vaccine requirements, more
parents got their children immunized and fewer
requested vaccine waivers.

Facilitating Care
According to an analysis by Noel Brewer, a
University of North Carolina psychologist who
studies health decisions, and his colleagues, the
most effective strategies encourage families
without trying to change what they think, and
most of these interventions fall squarely in
schools' wheelhouse:
* Facilitation, such as reminder emails or texts
and resource maps;
* Shaping behavior through incentives
and sanctions. These could include the
immunization records students need to attend
school, but also stickers or other recognition
given to students who get immunized; and
* Reducing barriers, such as arranging on-site
clinics or helping families qualify for health care.
That last may be both more difficult and more
critical during the pandemic. Both the CDC and
the Blue Cross study note that parents reported
being concerned about bringing their children to a
doctor's office for a flu shot or other immunization
because of the risk of exposure to COVID-19. Many
work- and school-based immunization clinics
were cancelled or postponed during closures.
When the Gardasil vaccine against the human
papilloma virus was released, studies found
parents were more likely to accept it for their
children if pediatricians simply announced it as
part of the normal schedule of vaccines, rather
than asking parents if they wanted to add it.
" We still legally have to get the parents to
sign the consent form, but we could do it in a
participant way, " Chapman said. " You know, 'Our
school is doing COVID vaccinations on Thursday
and Friday of this week, your child will receive a
vaccine at school that day. Please sign and return
this consent form by Wednesday.' That kind of
message communicates this is a standard of care.
Everyone's doing it; it's our standard policy. "
Schooling under the pandemic is raising a lot of
questions for teachers and education leaders. This
column aims to help readers understand what the
research says about our new context for learning.
If you have a question, please send it to ssparks@
educationweek.org.

EDUCATION WEEK | November 25, 2020 | www.edweek.org | 5


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Education Week - November 25, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 25, 2020

Education Week - November 25, 2020
Briefly Stated
Training Bias Out of Teachers: Does It Work?
What the Research Says
Pandemic Is a Workers’ Rights Issue For Schools
How Hybrid Learning Is (and Is Not) Working During COVID-19: 6 Case Studies
A Highly Effective Vaccine Is Likely on the Way. What Does That Mean for Schools And Kids?
Home Schooling Is Way Up With COVID-19. Will It Last?
Districts Are Retreating to Remote Learning As COVID-19 Surges. Do They Have To?
How Will Schools Pay for Compensatory Services for Special Ed. Students?
Let’s Get Back to School—Differently
How to Support Your Grieving Students
23 EdWeek Top School Jobs
Parents Are Watching Like Never Before. ‘Trust Us’ Isn’t Enough
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Education Week - November 25, 2020
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 3
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Training Bias Out of Teachers: Does It Work?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - What the Research Says
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 6
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 7
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How Hybrid Learning Is (and Is Not) Working During COVID-19: 6 Case Studies
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 9
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - A Highly Effective Vaccine Is Likely on the Way. What Does That Mean for Schools And Kids?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 11
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Home Schooling Is Way Up With COVID-19. Will It Last?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 13
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Districts Are Retreating to Remote Learning As COVID-19 Surges. Do They Have To?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 15
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How Will Schools Pay for Compensatory Services for Special Ed. Students?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 17
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Let’s Get Back to School—Differently
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How to Support Your Grieving Students
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 20
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 21
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 22
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 23 EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Parents Are Watching Like Never Before. ‘Trust Us’ Isn’t Enough
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