Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 14

Districts Are Retreating to Remote Learning
As COVID-19 Surges. Do They Have To?
By Stephen Sawchuk
As coronavirus rates surge across
the country, hundreds of school districts are pulling back on in-person
learning-even as a rising chorus of
researchers insists that with proper
safety protocols, in-person schooling
does not appear to be a major driver of
COVID-19 transmission.
In the last few weeks alone, several major school systems, including
Boston, Detroit, and Indianapolis,
retreated from in-person learning.
Others, like Philadelphia and Clark
County, Nev., which includes Las
Vegas, have pushed back plans to resume in-person classes. Many smaller
districts are following suit, while the
nation's largest district, New York City,
which offers hybrid learning for about
a quarter of its 1 million students, announced it would stop it temporarily
beginning Nov. 19.
The unsettling conclusion from
these two trends-newer research and
the frightening uptick in coronavirus
cases-is that many districts were probably overly cautious about in-person
learning in the beginning of the school
year, when COVID-19 rates were far
lower. Now the recent wave of closures
raises the specter that much of the rest
of the school year could be lost.
It is a vise-like position for school
and district leaders to be in: to consider ways of keeping students in class,
even as a disease that has already
killed more than 250,000 Americans
picks up steam.
" My fear is we're heading to a reality where we can't open schools in
2020-21. There's time left this year,
but you see it starting to happen-you
see districts pulling back, " said Benjamin P. Linas, an associate professor of medicine and epidemiology at
Boston University who studies infectious diseases.

Health Experts: School
Reopening Rules Have Been
Too Conservative
More health experts are concluding that many states and districts
have been too conservative about
their rules for returning to in-person
schooling-and much too lax about
nearly everything else, creating a perfect storm that is making in-person
learning impossible for hundreds of
thousands of children.
Most U.S. states, the experts note,
have put a higher priority on reopening local businesses, restaurants, and
bars than K-12 schools. European
countries, including France, Germany, and Ireland, have done the opposite and have prioritized keeping
schools open, despite recently rising
rates of community transmission.
In part, medical experts say, that's
because the local health department
guidelines school districts typically
use to decide how much face-to-face

Mary Altaffer/AP

& Catherine Gewertz

Parents and students rally
in New York to keep schools
open. New York City halted
in-person learning to stop
the spread of COVID-19,
so all 1 million of its students
will be learning in online
classes.

"

I'm not saying
schools should
never close.
They probably
should at some
point if things
get really
horrible. But the
idea that schools
should be the
first casualty,
before casinos,
bars, and
restaurants,
in my mind
defies logic.
DR. ASHISH K. JHA
dean, Brown University's
School of Public Health

14 | EDUCATION WEEK | November 25, 2020 | www.edweek.org

instruction they offer often define risk
differently than state-mandated rules
about public gatherings, which tend to
be more permissive.
" We shouldn't be thinking of
schools outside of everything else, "
Linas said. " If you're not going to do
something to restrict mobility more
generally to get COVID under control, then you're not actually going to
do anything to reduce rates.
" Just closing schools will not control
your COVID epidemic. It will disrupt
the education of your kids, and all the
other things closing schools does to
families. "
Districts are making reflexive decisions to close their schools based on
those local thresholds, Linas said.
Instead, they should pause when
they've tripped one of the thresholds,
and consider whether mitigation or
other strategies might make some inperson learning possible.
For example, districts could consider
whether there's any evidence of transmission in individual school buildings
or classrooms, whether students and
staff are all adhering to mask wearing,
whether windows and air exchanges in
buildings are sufficient, and whether
their contact-tracing efforts are effective. And, they could consider keeping
certain classrooms or grades home,
rather than shutting down the entire
school, he said.

What Should Threshold Be
for Closing Schools? In New
York City, It's 3 Percent
Nowhere is the debate over inperson learning louder than in the
nation's largest school district. New
York City has been slow to shutter
bars and entertainment venues dur-

ing this second surge. Last week, it
rapidly approached a trigger point-
a rate of positive COVID-19 tests at 3
percent or higher, on a 7-day sliding
average-that would require it to resume full remote learning.
And on Nov. 18, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city finally
crossed over the threshold and would
close the next day. " We must fight
back the second wave of COVID-19, "
he said.
The 3 percent measure emerged
from negotiations between the city,
medical experts, and the United
Federation of Teachers this summer,
and was included in the safety plan
the city submitted to the state and
governor's office. But that threshold
is much more cautious than the 9
percent benchmark set by the state,
and it is on the conservative side of
the school guidance issued by the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The city also routinely tests a sample of students and staff, and thus
far has found very low test-positivity
rates-far below 1 percent.
So far, the UFT has resisted calls
to reassess this threshold. A UFT
spokesman said that the union could
go to court if the city doesn't adhere to its plan. Mayor Bill de Blasio
has defended the 3 percent figure,
calling it part of a " social contract "
made with parents. But Gov. Andrew
Cuomo has hinted that he thinks it
should be revised, and a rising tide
of parents is also beginning to challenge it.
Three parents started a petition mid-month, calling on the city
to rethink the threshold, and it's
been signed by more than 13,000
people.

While many parents believe the
threshold was set in good faith, they
argue that it should be updated to
reflect the best knowledge about
youth transmission and schools.
" Nobody knew anything about
how the virus was transmitted at
that time, whether kids were super
spreaders, " said Mia Eisner-Grynberg, one of the parents who organized the petition. " But as the data
came in over the summer and then
as other schools opened, it became
clearer and clearer that school could
be done safely. "

No Consensus on How High
Virus Rates Can Go Before
Schools Must Close
The current surge in coronavirus
cases, particularly across a huge
swath of the Midwest and in some
urban centers, is shining a hard
light on the need for good data and
science to guide districts' decisions
about shutting down or staying open.
But there's no clear consensus on the
health metrics that should signify
shifting to remote teaching.
Health experts agree there is a
threshold over which community
spread is so rampant that schools
cannot responsibly educate students
in person. But even those who believe
schools have been too timid in their
reopenings hesitate to name exactly
where they think that threshold lies
on the two most common measures:
the rates of new COVID-19 cases and
test positivity.
" I'm not saying schools should
never close. They probably should
at some point if things get really horrible. But the idea that schools should
be the first casualty, before casinos,


http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - November 25, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 25, 2020

Education Week - November 25, 2020
Briefly Stated
Training Bias Out of Teachers: Does It Work?
What the Research Says
Pandemic Is a Workers’ Rights Issue For Schools
How Hybrid Learning Is (and Is Not) Working During COVID-19: 6 Case Studies
A Highly Effective Vaccine Is Likely on the Way. What Does That Mean for Schools And Kids?
Home Schooling Is Way Up With COVID-19. Will It Last?
Districts Are Retreating to Remote Learning As COVID-19 Surges. Do They Have To?
How Will Schools Pay for Compensatory Services for Special Ed. Students?
Let’s Get Back to School—Differently
How to Support Your Grieving Students
23 EdWeek Top School Jobs
Parents Are Watching Like Never Before. ‘Trust Us’ Isn’t Enough
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Education Week - November 25, 2020
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 3
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Training Bias Out of Teachers: Does It Work?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - What the Research Says
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 6
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 7
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How Hybrid Learning Is (and Is Not) Working During COVID-19: 6 Case Studies
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 9
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - A Highly Effective Vaccine Is Likely on the Way. What Does That Mean for Schools And Kids?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 11
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Home Schooling Is Way Up With COVID-19. Will It Last?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 13
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Districts Are Retreating to Remote Learning As COVID-19 Surges. Do They Have To?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 15
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How Will Schools Pay for Compensatory Services for Special Ed. Students?
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 17
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Let’s Get Back to School—Differently
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - How to Support Your Grieving Students
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 20
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 21
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 22
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - 23 EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - November 25, 2020 - Parents Are Watching Like Never Before. ‘Trust Us’ Isn’t Enough
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