Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 9

professional development. When we did this speedometry
project, I had one 4th grade teacher I was interviewing
afterward, and she said, " You know, I really enjoyed it,
because this was the first time I ever taught science. " This
teacher had never felt comfortable teaching science because
she didn't really know how to do it.
Science really got pushed aside with the emphasis [on
math and reading], or it's not taught in teacher-certification
programs. And then [teachers are] not given enough
professional development opportunities to feel comfortable
teaching it. When we look at teachers' scientific knowledge,
it's really general, particularly elementary [teachers']. Of
course, we have scientists teaching in high school, but with
elementary [teachers], we don't see that their knowledge
is particularly higher than the general public, and that's
disconcerting. They really need to have better scientific
knowledge themselves to feel the confidence they need to
support their students.
Here's a much more specific question about ways to
change students' minds about their misperceptions:
a refutation text. Can you explain what it is and how it
works?
In my research team, one of the ways we've helped people
overcome misconceptions that they have, which are making
them resistant to the scientific information, is a refutation
text.
What it does is states the common misconception about
a topic. Then it refutes that and says that's not correct. And
then, importantly, it explains the correct conception. An
example might be, " Some people think that humans can't
impact the climate. That is not correct. Scientists have shown
that humans can impact the climate. " And here's how, and
it explains that scientific point of view. So it has those three
components.
We've used these types of texts to upend misconceptions
people have about climate change, evolution. Other
people have used them on vaccines. We've used them on
misconceptions people have about [genetically modified
organisms]. So we've used them on a variety of topics. And
we find when you can change a misconception-particularly
a misconception that's holding people back from accepting
the scientific point of view-you can shift their attitude
toward that information and some of the negative emotion
and attitudes as well.
For educators who are starting out, with students
who are maybe more resistant to some of these
things or who are dealing with more scrutiny in their
teaching, where do they start?
Well, we definitely think that teachers need to up their
own understanding of science in any way they can through
professional-development opportunities, learning more
about science, learning more about the nature of science,
and teaching in a way to promote that kind of inquiry and
problem solving based on the scientific practices outlined in
the NGSS. We also think it would be extremely important for
teachers to be teaching about digital and algorithmic literacy.
We talk about digital literacy because kids look for
scientific information online. How do you do that? How do
you source it? And we all need to now know that if you were
to be interested in whether humans and dinosaurs lived at
the same time and you ask kids to Google that, they need
to understand that the first [answer] that pops up might say
yes, which is incorrect, because it probably gets more clicks,
and things that get more clicks might appear higher in your
Google search due to the way algorithms work.
And what would you say to policymakers?
You know, science is one of the best economic engines this
country has ever known. The return on investment of every
dollar we spend on scientific research is manyfold over. We
have cut back our scientific investment over time and at an
alarming rate. This contributes not only to lack of innovation
for dealing with pandemics and climate change, but also it
contributes to scientists looking for funding elsewhere.
So when they're trying to get funding from a drug company
instead of from the government, then there might be some
conflict of interest or other issues that arise. And so just
having private-sector funding of research is not sufficient.
The public has to fund scientific research because we want
that research to be as unbiased as possible and we get a
tremendous economic benefit from it.
It should never be a partisan issue. There are just plenty
of good reasons for Republicans as well as Democrats to be
supportive of the scientific enterprise. 
TEACHING SCIENCE IN TURBULENT TIMES | 9

Education Week - November 24, 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 24, 2021

Education Week - November 24, 2021
6 Challenges for Science Educators
Science Denial In the Classroom: What Causes It? How Should Teachers Respond?
5 Ways to Teach Climate Change, COVID-19 in Polarized Times
Finding Hope In the Face of Climate Change: Why Some Teachers Focus on Solutions
COVID-19 Is a Science Lesson Waiting to Happen
Here’s How to Make Science More Relevant for Students of Color
Catching Up Native American Students In Science
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - Education Week - November 24, 2021
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - C2
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 1
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 2
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 6 Challenges for Science Educators
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 4
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 5
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - Science Denial In the Classroom: What Causes It? How Should Teachers Respond?
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 7
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 8
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 9
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 5 Ways to Teach Climate Change, COVID-19 in Polarized Times
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 11
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 12
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - Finding Hope In the Face of Climate Change: Why Some Teachers Focus on Solutions
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 14
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 15
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - COVID-19 Is a Science Lesson Waiting to Happen
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 17
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - Here’s How to Make Science More Relevant for Students of Color
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 19
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 20
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - Catching Up Native American Students In Science
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 22
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 23
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - 24
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - C3
Education Week - November 24, 2021 - C4
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
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