Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 9


Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Analysis of multiple
studies finds link
By Evie Blad
Schools where students feel safe,
engaged, and connected to their
teachers are also schools that
have narrower achievement gaps
between low-income children and
their wealthier peers.
A research analysis found correlations between improved school
climates and narrower achievement gaps between students in
different socioeconomic groups.
Authors of the analysis, published this month in the Review of
Educational Research, examined
78 school-climate-research studies
published between 2000 and 2015
to detect trends.
All but one of those studies
found a relationship between improved school climate and student
achievement.
"Our analysis of more than 15
years' worth of research shows that
schools do matter and can do much
to improve academic outcomes,"
study co-author Ron Avi Astor, a
professor of social work and education at the University of Southern
California, said in a statement.
"Our findings suggest that by
promoting a positive climate,
schools can allow greater equality

in educational opportunities, decrease socioeconomic inequalities,
and enable more social mobility,"
he continued.
In one notable finding, researchers detected no correlation between
school climate and a school's socioeconomic levels. This suggests that
positive school climates are possible, even in schools with high-need,
low-income student populations,
the authors write.
Although the studies included
in the analysis used inconsistent
definitions for school climate, the
authors generally define it as "positive teacher-student relationships,
sense of safety, and student connectedness to and engagement in
school."
Schools take a variety of actions
to improve school climate, from implementing stronger anti-bullying
policies to setting up procedures
to ensure that discipline is used
consistently among all racial and
ethnic groups.
Among the authors' findings: A
positive school climate can weaken
the effects of low family income on
achievement.
"About 13 percent of the studies
found that climate has a moderating influence on the relationship
between background characteristics and academic achievement,"
the analysis says. "For example,
some studies indicated that posi-

tive climate decreases the correlation between [socioeconomic] background and academic achievement,
whereas negative school climate
increases this correlation, primarily among students with lower [socioeconomic] backgrounds."
"Positive school climate has the
potential to break the negative influences that stem from poor socioeconomic backgrounds and to
mitigate risk factors that threaten
academic achievement," co-author
Ruth Berkowitz, an assistant professor of social work at the University
of Haifa, Israel, said in a statement.

Improving Research
The authors also suggest ways to
improve school climate research.
One problem is that inconsistent
definitions of school climate and
methods of measurement across
studies make it difficult to draw
conclusions from their collective
results.
A uniform, consistent definition;
consistent forms of measurement;
and more rigorous, longitudinal
research would help strengthen
findings and show the strength of
school climate improvements' effects on classroom achievement,
they said.
In addition, research should
incorporate multiple measures
of success, weighing the input of

teachers, staff, and others beyond
students, who remain the narrow
focus of much school climate research, the analysis says.
Consistent, reliable research will
be more and more necessary as
states and schools increasingly incorporate school climate into their
accountability and improvement
strategies, the authors write.
Schools may increase their focus
on climate because the Every Student Succeeds Act, the new federal
education law, requires states to
incorporate at least one "other indicator" into their accountability systems in addition to such traditional
measures as student-test scores.
The law lists a few examples of
those other indicators, including
school safety, student engagement,
and school climate.
"There is a tangible, immediate
need to construct a common definition and reliable climate measurements that can be translated into
practice and policy guidelines,"
USC's Astor said. "In the absence
of a clear and uniform definition and measurement of school
climate, the ability of researchers and stakeholders to evaluate
school climate growth over time is
restricted."
Visit the RULES FOR ENGAGEMENT blog,
which tracks news and trends on this issue.
www.edweek.org/blogs

EDUCATION WEEK | November 16, 2016 | www.edweek.org | 9


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 16, 2016

Education Week - November 16, 2016
Few Women Run School Districts. Why?
Trump’s Lesson Plan Awaited
A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
News in Brief
Report Roundup
States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Proposed ESSA Spending Rules Encounter Stiff Resistance
Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Governors and Schools Chiefs Results
Ed. Policy on Simmer as GOP Holds Congress
GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
State Ballot Measures
In Mass., Voters Shun More Charter Schools
Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Department May Again Find Itself in GOP Cross Hairs
Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Senate/House Results
SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 10
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 11
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 13
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 14
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - State Ballot Measures
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 21
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Senate/House Results
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 29
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 30
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 31
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW1
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW4
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com