Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 17


SNAPSHOT

|

School Law

TITLE IX AND TRANSGENDER STUDENTS

Some Key Developments
Over 44 Years

The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case of Gloucester
County School Board v. G.G., which involves a high school
senior, Gavin Grimm, who was born female but now identifies as
male. He is seeking to use the restroom corresponding with his
gender identity, but the Virginia school district adopted a policy
requiring that students use restrooms limited to their "biological
gender." A central issue in the case is the proper interpretation of
a federal regulation under Title IX.

BY MARK WALSH

Here are some key background points in the debate:

1975

President Richard
M. Nixon signs into
law the Education
Amendments
of 1972, which
includes Title IX:

The U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare issues a regulation for Title IX clarifying that:
A recipient [of federal funding] may provide separate
toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis
of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one
sex shall be comparable to such facilities provided for
students of the other sex.
Supporters of the Gloucester County school board
contend that when Title IX passed, Congress
contemplated the term "sex" to refer to anatomical
sex. Lawyers for Gavin Grimm argue that the statute
and the regulation view the term as encompassing
all physiological, anatomical, and behavioral aspects
of sex.

Steve Helber/AP

No person in the United States shall,
on the basis of sex, be excluded
from participation in, be denied
the benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination under any education
program or activity receiving federal
financial assistance.

Charles Harrity/AP-File

1972

THIS YEAR: The U.S. Supreme Court agrees to take up transgender rights for
the first time in a case involving Gavin Grimm, a Gloucester, Va., high school
student, and his right to use the boys' restroom at his high school.

1998

U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia is the author
of the first of two opinions that have generally provided
support for Grimm's case. In Auer v. Robbins, Scalia
writes the majority opinion that says a federal agency's
interpretation of its own ambiguous regulation must
be given controlling weight unless the interpretation is
plainly erroneous or inconsistent with the regulation or
statute.

Scalia writes the opinion for a unanimous Supreme
Court in Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Inc.,
which involved a male oil-rig worker who was subjected
to sex-related, humiliating actions by his male coworkers. The Supreme Court held that the worker could
sue for a claim of same-sex harassment as a form of
illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964.

That decision will be the basis for an April 19, 2016,
decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th
Circuit, in Richmond, Va. It gave "Auer deference" to
the U.S. Department of Education's view that its Title
IX regulation, which in 1975 was understood simply to
mean that schools could provide separate restrooms for
girls and boys, now means that some students' gender
identities do not align with their birth-assigned sex and
that schools must allow students to use the restrooms
that correspond with their gender identity.

Scalia writes that "male-on-male sexual harassment in the
workplace was assuredly not the principal evil Congress
was concerned with when it enacted Title VII. But
statutory prohibitions often go beyond the principal evil to
cover reasonably comparable evils, and it is ultimately the
provisions of our laws rather than the principal concerns
of our legislators by which we are governed." This has
been cited by Grimm's allies as support for the idea that
Title IX is also open to newer interpretations.

Jon Elswick/AP-File

1997

A pair of previous high court precedents could come into play
when the transgender case is argued later this term.

2016

By this time, President Barack Obama's administration
has taken the view in various guidance and enforcement
actions that federal civil rights laws cover transgender
status. In response to a letter from a lawyer regarding
Gavin Grimm's case, an official with the Education
Department's office for civil rights writes that the
department had recently reached resolutions with two
other school districts in cases involving transgender
students who were denied the use of the restroom or locker
room corresponding to their gender identity.

After the 4th Circuit court issues its rule that deference must be given to the Education
Department's views as expressed in the Ferg-Cadima letter, the Education Department
and the U.S. Department of Justice on May 13 issue a "Dear Colleague" letter to
educators nationwide. The letter is described as "significant guidance" and states in
broader terms that "a school must not treat a transgender student differently from the
way it treats other students of the same gender identity."

The letter was from James A. Ferg-Cadima, who was the
acting deputy assistant secretary for policy at the OCR. He
says in the letter that when a school has "sex-segregated"
restrooms and locker rooms, "a school generally must treat
transgender students consistent with their gender identity.
OCR also encourages schools to offer the use of genderneutral, individual-user facilities to any student who does
not want to use shared sex-segregated facilities."

Pablo Martinez Monsivais/AP

2015

"A school's Title IX obligation to ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of sex requires
schools to provide transgender students equal access to educational programs and
activities even in circumstances in which other students, parents, or community
members raise objections or concerns," says the letter from Catherine E. Lhamon, the
assistant secretary for civil rights in the Education Department, and Vanita Gupta, the
principal deputy assistant attorney general for civil rights in the Justice Department.
This letter has been challenged in a lawsuit by some 20 states, led by Texas, and a
federal district judge in Texas has issued a nationwide injunction blocking it. It is not
clear whether the Supreme Court will consider the "Dear Colleague" letter as it weighs
the Gloucester County case.

EDUCATION WEEK | November 16, 2016 | www.edweek.org | 17


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 16, 2016

Education Week - November 16, 2016
Few Women Run School Districts. Why?
Trump’s Lesson Plan Awaited
A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
News in Brief
Report Roundup
States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Proposed ESSA Spending Rules Encounter Stiff Resistance
Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Governors and Schools Chiefs Results
Ed. Policy on Simmer as GOP Holds Congress
GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
State Ballot Measures
In Mass., Voters Shun More Charter Schools
Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Department May Again Find Itself in GOP Cross Hairs
Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Senate/House Results
SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 10
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 11
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 13
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 14
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - State Ballot Measures
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 21
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Senate/House Results
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 29
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 30
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 31
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW1
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW4
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