Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 16


Sharp Questions Posed
In Service-Dog Case
Special education issue at stake
Washington

The U.S. Supreme Court had
tough questions for both sides
in a case about whether a family that sued a Michigan school
district under federal disabilities
laws after it barred a service dog
for their child with cerebral palsy
should have had to first exhaust a
special education administrative
process.
By the end of the hourlong argument in Fry v. Napoleon Community Schools (Case No. 15-497) on
Oct. 31, it appeared that the court
was leaning in the direction of the
family's view that it could sue for
damages and other relief under the
Americans with Disabilities Act of
1990 and the Rehabilitation Act
of 1973 without exhausting procedures under the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act.
Justice Elena Kagan, citing a
separate 1986 federal statute
meant to clarify the interplay between the IDEA and the other
federal disabilities laws, said Congress seemed to be saying "the fact
that the IDEA exists for schools
does not mean that you don't have
separate ADA and Rehabilitation
Act claims."
"And if you bring those separate
kinds of claims, which are essentially denial of access claims to
public facilities, and then you're
asking in addition to that for a form
of damages that has nothing to do
with what any IDEA officer can provide, then you can go forward without exhaustion," Kagan told Neal K.
Katyal, the lawyer representing the
Napoleon district before the high
court.

Justice Sonia Sotomayor said
that the harms alleged in the
family's ADA and Rehabilitation
Act lawsuit are "essentially compensatory emotional harms": that
Ehlena Fry was denied equal access when the Napoleon district
denied her the use of her service
dog when she was in kindergarten
in 2009-10; that her opportunity to
interact with other children was
infringed; and that she suffered
emotional distress and mental anguish as a result.
"Every one of those are the classic damage harms that are compensatory," Sotomayor told Katyal,
suggesting they were damages not
covered by the IDEA.

In the Courtroom and Outside
Ehlena, now 12, observed the arguments from the second row of the
courtroom's public gallery with her
parents, Stacy Fry and Brent Fry,
and one of her brothers. (The family
has five children altogether.)
Because Ehlena no longer relies
on her service dog, a goldendoodle
named Wonder, in school, the family decided not to seek permission
for the dog to accompany her into
the courtroom. Ehlena is now in
6th grade in the Manchester district in Michigan, which welcomed
Wonder for the three years she
continued to need him, until last
school year.
As the case ended and the
crowded courtroom dispersed,
Ehlena and her family waited for a
court aide to bring her walker to her
before they exited. Outside, Wonder
waited to be reunited with his family. The dog is now 9½ years old and
made the trip from Michigan. Other

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Molly Riley/AP

By Mark Walsh

Ehlena Fry, 12, is helped
down the steps of the
U.S. Supreme Court by her
mother, Stacy Fry; Michael J.
Steinberg, ACLU of Michigan
legal director; and her dog,
Wonder. The high court
heard arguments in a
case involving Ehlena, who
has cerebral palsy and who,
at age 5, was banned from
bringing her service dog
to school.

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16 | EDUCATION WEEK | November 16, 2016 | www.edweek.org

families with service dogs were also
outside on the court's plaza.
Back in the courtroom, Katyal
aggressively advanced the view
that Congress had established a
delicate balance in the special education statute and that the relief
the family is seeking in its suit-a
declaration that the dog be permitted and damages-was actually
available under the IDEA, if under
other names.
The idea of allowing money damages "for this type of situation
without first exhausting the state
processes is an end-run around the
expert-agency statute that Congress set up, which they want to
give states and localities the first
crack at resolving ... instead of
allowing parents to abandon the
IDEA system and march into federal court, which is exactly what
happened here," Katyal said.

Samuel R. Bagenstos, a University of Michigan law professor
representing the Fry family, told
the justices that Congress adopted
the 1986 statute, called the Handicapped Children's Protection Act,
"to make clear that the IDEA is not
the exclusive vehicle for protecting the rights of children with disabilities, and Congress also sought
to make clear that cases brought
under other federal statutes, like
the ADA and the Rehabilitation
Act, may proceed directly to court
so long as they are not actually
seeking relief that is also available
under the IDEA."
The family also had President
Barack Obama's administration
on its side, with Roman Martinez,
an assistant to the U.S. solicitor
general, arguing that the family
was seeking money damages, not a
change to Ehlena's individualized
education program, "and that relief
is not available under the IDEA."
Martinez said that when a family and a school district, as in this
case, agree that a "free, appropriate education" has been provided
under the IDEA, "that should be
enough" to allow a separate claim

to proceed under the ADA or the
Rehabilitation Act.
Both Bagenstos and Martinez met
some skepticism from the court.
Justice Anthony M. Kennedy
wondered whether a plaintiff lawyer's "artful complaint" might "subject the school district to damages
that it might not otherwise have
had to pay."
Justice Stephen G. Breyer told
Bagenstos that if lawyers sought to
avoid the IDEA exhaustion requirement by waiting to sue for damages,
"that would seem to gut the carefully written procedural system that
the IDEA sets up."
Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr.
had a similar concern, that lawyers would tack on an emotionaldamages claim and then school districts "will always face two-track
litigation."
But by late in the argument,
both Breyer and Roberts seemed to
have worked out their concerns and
sounded more sympathetic to the
Fry family.
Breyer told Katyal that once the
district denied the service dog, "at
that time you're free to sue. You've
met the exhaustion requirement
because it's futile. ... And this suit
has been brought after that was
done. So I don't see how this suit is
going to ever get back for exhaustion, because the school has made
clear they won't [allow the dog]."
(Actually, the Napoleon district
did agree eventually to permit Ehlena's service dog to accompany her,
but only after the U.S. Department
of Education's office for civil rights
intervened. The girl's parents had
already pulled her out of the district
by that point and did not feel comfortable returning.)
Meanwhile, when Katyal said that
all a family had to do to exhaust
remedies under the IDEA was go
through a 105-day process, which
he nevertheless called "complicated," Roberts said that "105 days
is a big part of the school year. ... I
think saying all they have to do is
go through a 105-day process is not
particularly responsive."
A decision in the case is expected
by June.


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 16, 2016

Education Week - November 16, 2016
Few Women Run School Districts. Why?
Trump’s Lesson Plan Awaited
A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
News in Brief
Report Roundup
States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Proposed ESSA Spending Rules Encounter Stiff Resistance
Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Governors and Schools Chiefs Results
Ed. Policy on Simmer as GOP Holds Congress
GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
State Ballot Measures
In Mass., Voters Shun More Charter Schools
Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Department May Again Find Itself in GOP Cross Hairs
Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Senate/House Results
SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - A Day After Election, Classes Are Awash in Emotions
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - States Found to Offer 95 Kinds of Diplomas
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Black Teachers Feel Pigeonholed On the Job, Report Says
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Eager to Innovate: African-American Teenagers and Technology
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Positive Climates May Shrink Achievement Gaps
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 10
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 11
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Q&A: ‘You Just Do the Work’
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 13
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 14
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Oklahoma Schools Chief Facing Campaign-Finance Charges
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Sharp Questions Posed In Service-Dog Case
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Title IX and Transgender Students: Some Key Developments Over 44 Years
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GOP Solidifies Hold on State-Level Leadership
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - State Ballot Measures
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Bilingual Education Set to Return to California Schools
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 21
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Teachers’ Unions Spend Big, Mostly Fall Short in Elections
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Senate/House Results
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - SUSAN MOORE JOHNSON: To Decentralize or Not? Is That Even the Question?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - JIM HAAS: Oh, the Humanity!
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GREGG WEINLEIN: The School Friendship Challenge
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 29
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 30
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - 31
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - GARY BEACH: Does the U.S. Department of Education Need to Be Restructured?
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW1
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW2
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW3
Education Week - November 16, 2016 - CW4
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