Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 22


COMMENTARY

TION
ELEC

2016

What Students Don't Know
About Fact-Checking

D

By Sam Wineburg and Sarah McGrew
id Donald Trump support the Iraq War? Hillary Clinton says yes. He
says no. Who's right?
In search of answers,
many of us ask our kids
to "Google" something.
These so-called digital
natives, who've never known a world without screens, are the household's resident
fact-checkers. If anyone can find the truth,
we assume, they can.
Don't be so sure.
True, many of our kids can flit between
Facebook and Twitter while uploading a
selfie to Instagram and texting a friend. But
when it comes to using the Internet to get to
the bottom of things, Junior's no better than
the rest of us. Often he's worse.
In a study conducted by Eszter Hargittai and her colleagues at Northwestern
University, 102 college students went
online to answer questions about things
that matter to them-like how to advise a female friend who's desperate to
prevent pregnancy after her boyfriend's
condom broke. How did students decide
what to believe? One factor loomed largest: a site's placement in the search results. Students ignored the sponsoring
organization and the article's author,
blindly trusting the search engine to put
the most reliable results first.
Research we've conducted at Stanford
University supports these findings. Over
the past 18 months, we administered
assessments that tap young people's
ability to judge online information. We
analyzed over 7,804 responses from students in middle school through college.
At every level, we were taken aback by
students' lack of preparation: middle
school students unable to tell the difference between an advertisement and a
news story; high school students taking
at face value a cooked-up chart from the
Minnesota Gun Owners Political Action
Committee; college students credulously
accepting a .org top-level domain name
as if it were a Good Housekeeping seal.
One task asked students to determine
the trustworthiness of material on the
websites of two organizations: the 66,000
member American Academy of Pediatrics, established in 1930 and publisher of
the journal Pediatrics, vs. the American
College of Pediatricians, a fringe group
that broke with the main organization
in 2002 over its stance on adoption by
same-sex couples. We asked 25 undergraduates at Stanford-the most selective college in the country, which rejected
95 percent of its applicants last year-to
spend up to 10 minutes examining con-

tent on both sites. Students could stay
on the initial web page, click on links,
Google something else-anything they
would normally do to reach a judgment.
More than half concluded that the
article from the American College of
Pediatricians, an organization that ties
homosexuality to pedophilia and which
the Southern Poverty Law Center labeled a hate group, was "more reliable."
Even students who preferred the entry
from the American Academy of Pediatrics
never uncovered the differences between
the two groups. Instead, they saw the two
organizations as equivalent and focused
their evaluations on surface features of
the websites. As one student put it: "They
seemed equally reliable to me. ... They
are both from academies or institutions
that deal with this stuff every day."
Ironically, many students learned so
little because they spent most of their
time reading the articles on each organization's site. But masking true intentions
and ownership on the web has grown so
sophisticated that to rely on the same
set of skills one uses for print reading is
naive. Parsing digital information before
one knows if a site can be trusted is a
colossal waste of time and energy.
This became clear to us when we gave
our tasks to professional fact-checkers.
Three strategies separate checkers from
the rest of us:
* Landing on an unfamiliar site,
the first thing checkers did was to
leave it. If undergraduates read vertically, evaluating online articles as if they
were printed news stories, fact-checkers
read laterally, jumping off the original
page, opening up a new tab, Googling the
name of the organization or its president.
Dropped in the middle of a forest, hikers
know they can't divine their way out by
looking at the ground. They use a compass. Similarly, fact-checkers use the vast
resources of the Internet to determine
where information is coming from before
they read it.
* Second, fact-checkers know it's
not about "About." They don't evaluate
a site based solely on the description it
provides about itself. If a site can masquerade as a nonpartisan think tank
when funded by corporate interests and
created by a Washington public relations
firm, it can surely pull the wool over our
eyes with a concocted "About" page.
* Third, fact-checkers look past
the order of search results. Instead
of trusting Google to sort pages by reliability (which reveals a fundamental
misunderstanding of how Google works),
the checkers mined URLs and abstracts

22 | EDUCATION WEEK | November 2, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Getty

for clues. They regularly scrolled down to
the bottom of the search results page in
their quest to make an informed decision
about where to click first.
None of this is rocket science. But it's
often not taught in school. In fact, some
schools have special filters that direct
students to already vetted sites, effectively creating a generation of bubble
children who never develop the immunities needed to ward off the toxins that
float across their Facebook feeds, where
students most often get their news. This
approach protects young people from the
real world rather than preparing them
to deal with it.
After the vice presidential debate, Hillary Clinton's campaign tweeted, "Unfortunately for Mike Pence and Donald
Trump, Google exists (and we aren't stupid)." Yes, Google puts vast quantities of
information at our fingertips. But it also
puts the onus for fact-checking on us. For
every political question swirling in this
election, there are countless websites
vying for our attention-front groups
and fake news sites right next to legitimate and reliable sources.
We agree with the tweet from the
Clinton campaign. We're not stupid. But
when we turn to our screens for information and answers, we need to get a lot
smarter about how we decide what's true
and what's not. n
SAM WINEBURG is a professor in the Stanford
University Graduate School of Education. SARAH
MCGREW is pursuing her doctorate in curriculum
and teacher education at Stanford.

"

For every political
question swirling
in this election,
there are countless
websites vying for
our attention."


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 2, 2016

Education Week - November 2, 2016
Teaching Literature Outside Of English Class
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Citizenship Initiative Will Target State Legislatures
Science Gains Seen at 4th, 8th Grades
African-American Museum Gears Up School Offerings
Principals Work Nearly 60 Hours A Week, According to Study
Conservative Group Focusing On ESSA Expands Reach
Guidance, Hurdles for ESSA’s ‘Well-Rounded Education’ Grant
SNAPSHOT: Tracking the Common Core
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
IN CONVERSATION: Q&A With Joseph Gauld
Election Lesson Reverberates In N.C. District
Voter’s Guide
Education’s Tenuous Toehold on 2016 Ballot
SAM WINEBURG AND SARAH McGREW: What Students Don’t Know About Fact-Checking
BY THE NUMBERS: What Do Budding Voters Think?
MICHAEL J. FEUER: Whither Evidence?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Election Lesson Reverberates In N.C. District
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 2
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 3
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Science Gains Seen at 4th, 8th Grades
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 7
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 8
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 9
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Principals Work Nearly 60 Hours A Week, According to Study
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 11
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 12
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 13
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 14
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Guidance, Hurdles for ESSA’s ‘Well-Rounded Education’ Grant
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Tracking the Common Core
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 17
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Education’s Tenuous Toehold on 2016 Ballot
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 19
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 20
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 21
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - SAM WINEBURG AND SARAH McGREW: What Students Don’t Know About Fact-Checking
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - BY THE NUMBERS: What Do Budding Voters Think?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 24
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 27
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - MICHAEL J. FEUER: Whither Evidence?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT4
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