Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 10


African-American Museum Gears Up School Offerings
Classes are already
flocking to museum
By Madeline Will

Photos by Greg Kahn for Education Week

Sixth grader Omari Sterling,
left, and his teacher
Gabrielle Randall of the
Knowledge Is Power
Program (KIPP) DC's
Northeast Academy visit
the National Museum
of African American History
and Culture, in Washington.

As Kilolo Moyo-White watched her 8th grade
students walk through the newly opened National Museum of African American History and
Culture, in Washington, she felt a sense of awe.
Seeing the exhibits last month felt like an
affirmation of her identity, she said, which
was also felt by her students from the Global
Leadership Academy Charter School in Philadelphia, most of whom are black.
"It was just a transformative moment for
them to be able to see themselves in that history and to be able to connect it so quickly to
what's happening in our society today," MoyoWhite said. "For some, I think that was a little
upsetting and troubling. But I think they were
also calmed by the beauty of the museum and
the fact that this museum is honoring that
hard work, those trials and tribulations, instead of just shading over it."
The museum, which cost $540 million and
took 11 years to come to fruition, opened on
Washington's National Mall Sept. 24. While
the exact number of school groups that have
visited since then was not readily available,
educators and students are already flocking
to the museum to see the stories of influential
African-Americans from past and present.
Next year, the museum, which has offered
educational programming for several years
before there was a physical building, will formalize additional resources for students and

Principals Work Nearly 60 Hours a Week, According to Study
By Sarah D. Sparks
A national study shows that principals regularly clock more than a standard, full-time workload every week.
On average, principals work
nearly 60 hours a week, with leaders of high-poverty schools racking
up even more time, according to the
first nationally representative study
of how principals use their time. It
was released last month by the federal Regional Education Laboratory
for Northeast and Islands.
"Years ago, I tried the best I could to
get everything done in 'normal work
hours,' but these last 10 years, I've just
assumed Sunday is going to be a work
day for six or seven hours," said Eric
Cardwell, the principal of the 525-student Besser Elementary School in Alpena, Mich. "The principalship: It's not
a job; it's a lifestyle," he added.
Cardwell is not alone. REL researchers analyzed data from a
nationally representative sample
of about 6,000 elementary and secondary principals who participated
in the federal Schools and Staffing
Survey during the 2011-12 school
year. Principals reported the largest portion of their week, 31 percent,
was taken up with administrative
tasks, such as paperwork and scheduling. They spent another 27 percent of their time on curriculum and
staffing, including staff evaluations,
classroom observations, and course
planning. They also spent a signifi-

cant amount of time interacting with
students and their parents, 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively.
"Being a principal is definitely
more than a typical 40-hours-a-week
job," said Heather Lavigne, an education researcher at the Education Development Center Inc., who led the
study for the regional lab. "It shows
the difference between what people

consider a regular full-time job and
what principals have on their plate."
Two years ago, trying to get a better
understanding of his own workload,
Cardwell tracked his own hours. "Just
evaluating my 20 teachers, I logged in
excess of 240 hours-that's six weeks
on evaluations alone," he said.
School leaders don't report a lot
of detail on their tasks for the fed-

HOW PRINCIPALS SPEND THEIR TIME
Paperwork takes up the largest chunk of principals' work week.

7
13

Other

31%

Internal
administrative
tasks

Parent
interactions

23

Student
interactions

27

Curriculumand teachingrelated tasks

Note: Percentages do not add up to 100 due to rounding.
SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics

10 | EDUCATION WEEK | NOVEMBER 2, 2016 | www.edweek.org

eral survey, so Lavigne and her colleagues were not able to analyze
differences within categories. She
warned: "High-poverty and low-poverty schools might be doing some
very different administrative tasks."
Brad Gustafson agreed. The head
of the 750-student Greenwood Elementary School in Plymouth, Minn.,
Gustafson said total work hours can
be deceiving. "Line up 10 or 100 or
1,000 principals, and they could all
be doing 60 hours and all be doing
drastically different things," he said.
However, a 2014 study of principals
in Miami-Dade County, Fla., schools
found that some types of curriculum
and instructional leadership were
more effective than others. While
spending more time coaching teachers was associated with improved
student achievement, just doing
classroom observations was linked
to lower student achievement. (See
Education Week, March 26, 2014.)

Managing Time
Work hours for principals have
been creeping up in the past decade,
according to Gail Connelly, the executive director of the National Association of Elementary School Principals. "We've seen an increase in the
last decade as we've entered the era
of high-stakes accountability. It used
to be closer to 50 hours a week," she
said. "We know the principal's role
is more complex and multifaceted

than it's ever been."
Connelly said the rising workload has contributed to a parallel
increase in turnover among young
principals; while the average principal stayed 10 years or more in a
school a decade ago, the average
stay is now three years.
Both Gustafson, who leads a lowpoverty school, and Cardwell, at a
high-poverty one, try to push administrative and paperwork tasks
until after the school day ends and
prioritize working with students
and teachers during school hours.
For example, Gustafson last year
found himself spending several hours
a week on an outreach newsletter to
parents and the community. After
talking with students, he switched
to working with them on a weekly
podcast. "Now, it's not just getting
our school's story out, but students
are actually becoming more literate
in those [communication] skills," he
said. Distributing leadership roles
among other teachers and staff members can also help build capacity and
recover time, Cardwell said.
Visit the INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog,
which tracks news and trends on this issue.
www.edweek.org/insideschoolresearch

Multimedia: Watch video on how two
working principals spend their day.
www.edweek.org/go/principal-time


http://www.edweek.org/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org/go/principal-time http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - November 2, 2016

Education Week - November 2, 2016
Teaching Literature Outside Of English Class
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Citizenship Initiative Will Target State Legislatures
Science Gains Seen at 4th, 8th Grades
African-American Museum Gears Up School Offerings
Principals Work Nearly 60 Hours A Week, According to Study
Conservative Group Focusing On ESSA Expands Reach
Guidance, Hurdles for ESSA’s ‘Well-Rounded Education’ Grant
SNAPSHOT: Tracking the Common Core
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
IN CONVERSATION: Q&A With Joseph Gauld
Election Lesson Reverberates In N.C. District
Voter’s Guide
Education’s Tenuous Toehold on 2016 Ballot
SAM WINEBURG AND SARAH McGREW: What Students Don’t Know About Fact-Checking
BY THE NUMBERS: What Do Budding Voters Think?
MICHAEL J. FEUER: Whither Evidence?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Election Lesson Reverberates In N.C. District
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 2
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 3
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Science Gains Seen at 4th, 8th Grades
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 7
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 8
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 9
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Principals Work Nearly 60 Hours A Week, According to Study
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 11
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 12
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 13
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 14
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Guidance, Hurdles for ESSA’s ‘Well-Rounded Education’ Grant
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - SNAPSHOT: Tracking the Common Core
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 17
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Education’s Tenuous Toehold on 2016 Ballot
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 19
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 20
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 21
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - SAM WINEBURG AND SARAH McGREW: What Students Don’t Know About Fact-Checking
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - BY THE NUMBERS: What Do Budding Voters Think?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 24
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - 27
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - MICHAEL J. FEUER: Whither Evidence?
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - November 2, 2016 - CT4
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