Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 17

studies where the same findings have been observed
multiple times in different settings with large
samples. Many educational practices are based on
single research studies with small sample sizes. We
can learn from small, one-off studies. But when it
comes to adopting practices, we recommend those
that have been evaluated in studies with large sample
sizes and reproducible results.
Finally, we can have much more faith in a
study's findings when they are preregistered. That
is, researchers publicly post exactly what their
hypotheses are and exactly how they will evaluate
each one before they have examined their data. This
helps limit flexible research practices, making it less
likely that researchers will find statistically significant
results by chance.
Some will lament that large RCTs are too
expensive, slow, or difficult to implement, and
that preregistering studies is not feasible because
educational research is messy and unpredictable. Yet
several studies conducted in the past few years prove
that changes in educational practice evaluated by
large-scale, reproducible, preregistered RCTs exist
and can be used to inform work on the ground.
In our own work, we have spent the last six years
studying how to reduce student absenteeism.
Through two large-scale, preregistered RCTs (one
with more than 28,000 K-12 students and another
with almost 11,000 K-5 students), our research team
found that sending mailings to parents several times
over the course of the school year with personalized
attendance information that dynamically targets
key parental misbeliefs consistently reduces chronic
absenteeism 10 percent to 15 percent. This research
led to the creation of InClassToday, a program that
partners with districts around the country to help
them reduce student absenteeism by implementing
this research-backed intervention.
Another practice that educators can-and, strong

"

The standards of proof
for what constitutes
'evidence' in schools-
and education more
widely-are often
exceedingly low."
student retention by 1.5 percentage points. Providing
parents with information that helps them monitor
their child's academic progress can have meaningful
impacts on student success.
Finally, a study of learning mindsets led by
David Yeager explored for whom growth mindset
interventions are most effective. In a nationally
representative sample of more than 12,000 students,
the study found that adolescents assigned to complete
a "growth mindset" intervention-which taught
that intellectual abilities can be developed-earned

higher GPAs (a modest, but real 0.05-grade points) in
core classes at the end of the 9th grade. The authors
preregistered that they predicted the intervention
would most help low-achieving students. Consistent
with this, they found that low-achieving students
showed larger effects with higher GPAs (0.10-grade
points) in core classes at the end of the 9th grade and
were 11 percentage points less likely to get a D or F
average in one of these classes. This large-scale and
preregistered study replicating prior findings provides
evidence that mindset interventions can improve
outcomes for struggling students.
Each of these relatively low-cost and easy-toimplement interventions have modest but real
impacts on student outcomes. Holding educational
research to greater standards of evidence will very
likely mean the effect sizes that are reported will be
smaller. But they will reflect reality.
Expectations about how much impact
interventions tend to have need to be massively
recalibrated since more-rigorous research with larger
sample sizes tends to find smaller effect sizes. If an
educational intervention's outcomes seem too good
to be true, they probably are. (A recent working paper
by Matt Kraft of Brown University provides a helpful
overview of how we might think about effect sizes in
education.)
There do not appear to be single "silver bullets"
that will easily equalize and accelerate educational
outcomes. The reality is that educational gains will
come from a combination of many well-supported,
evidence-based practices and communities of caring
adults helping kids.
We hope educational policymakers and
practitioners will start proactively looking for
practices that meet these standards of evidence and
work to widely implement them. By doing so, we can
move steadily toward greater educational success for
all students. n

"

I have never seen a teacher
or principal reject a story as
legitimate evidence."

Getty

teaching has high influence. When
teachers tell stories like Benjamin's
to one another, they listen. What
administrators bill as scientific
knowledge, on the other hand, is often
disappointing.
Take my colleague at that school in
North Carolina, Mrs. Wyatt. She was
still using phonics to teach reading
when I arrived at the school, but
then a mandate came down from
administrators: "Use the wholelanguage approach."
So Mrs. Wyatt taped everything
she needed for her phonics lessons
on the inside of the double doors that
closed off her closet. The doors were
open when she taught reading, closed
when she had administrative visitors.
Eventually, of course, scientific research
vindicated Mrs. Wyatt's approach.
When such wisdom is raised up,
research colleagues react as if their
world has been turned upside down
and their credibility challenged. They
are in the business not of trying to
investigate craft knowledge but to
replace it.
I have never seen a teacher or
principal reject a story as legitimate
evidence. That doesn't mean the
stories are taken at face value.
Counter-narratives often are offered

evidence suggests, should-take up comes from a
study conducted by Peter Bergman and Eric Chan.
They randomly assigned parents of more than 1,000
middle and high school students in 22 schools to
receive automated, frequent information via text
message about their child's missed assignments and
grades. The study, which has now been replicated
multiple times, found that this strategy led to a 28
percent reduction in course failures, a 12 percent
increase in specific class attendance, and increased

because we should question how best
to interpret evidence. But it is not,
as routinely suggested, a matter of
converting school people to the use of
scientific knowledge. It is coming to
recognize that scientific evidence does
not and should not carry the greatest
weight in many school situations.
Another type of knowledge, moral
evidence, is rarely even acknowledged
by the education research

community. While ethical and equity
considerations increasingly shape our
profession, they are often conspicuous
by their absence from researchers'
understanding of decisionmaking in
classrooms and schools.
If educators decide, in relation to
disciplinary policy, that it is morally
indefensible to keep children
after school several days a week,
their reasoning seems invisible to

researchers. Ethical principles as
knowledge are not allotted a seat at
the evidentiary table even when they
constitute the first and the ultimate
test of a proposed course of action for
teachers, principals, students, and
parents.
To move forward, we need to see
schooling through the eyes of others.
When we do not, reform will fail.
The dominant question among
researchers seems to have become:
How do we get school people to use
scientific evidence? This is, of course,
a very important question. But it is not
the right question with which to start.
The most important question is:
How do we begin to acknowledge
and use valuable evidence from all
sources of knowledge to assist in the
improvement of schools? n
EDUCATION WEEK | October 30, 2019 | www.edweek.org/go/opinion | 17


http://www.edweek.org/go/opinion

Education Week - October 30, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 30, 2019

Education Week - October 30, 2019
Deep in the Woods, a Test Of Leadership and Resolve
Minimum Wage Hikes Stress Districts
State Bans on Bilingual Ed. Nearly Extinct
Briefly Stated
Q&A: 5 Big Ed-Tech Problems And How to Solve Them
Later Starts: Do They Help?
What the Research Says
Elizabeth Warren’s K-12 Plan Spotlights Funding, Charters
Higher-Ed. Legislation Bubbling in Congress
Raising the Bar for Evidence In Education
An Educator’s Wisdom Is Evidence
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Science Fact vs. Science Fiction
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - State Bans on Bilingual Ed. Nearly Extinct
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 2
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 4
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Q&A: 5 Big Ed-Tech Problems And How to Solve Them
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - What the Research Says
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 7
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Elizabeth Warren’s K-12 Plan Spotlights Funding, Charters
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Higher-Ed. Legislation Bubbling in Congress
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 10
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 11
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 12
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 13
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 14
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 15
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - An Educator’s Wisdom Is Evidence
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 17
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Science Fact vs. Science Fiction
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW4
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