Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 16

OPINION

Getty

Raising the
Bar for
Evidence in
Education
Not all studies are created equal

By Carly Robinson
& Todd Rogers
ROBINSON is a doctoral
candidate in education at
Harvard University. ROGERS
is a professor of public
policy at Harvard Kennedy
School of Government
and a co-founder of
InClassToday.

T

hose looking for what works in
education will find no shortage
of advice. Educators, hoping
to improve student outcomes,
eagerly embrace recommendations telling them to "Cater to
each child's learning style!" and
"Give students awards for positive behaviors!" But
many such intuitive, popular "best practices" may not,
in fact, be what is best for students, even though their
proponents stamp them "evidence based."
Educators who prioritize evidence-based practices
are fighting an uphill battle; the standards of proof
for what constitutes "evidence" in schools-and

education more widely-are often exceedingly low.
For instance, the popular notions that we should be
teaching to students' learning styles or providing
students with attendance awards were both rooted
in observational evidence. Both practices have now
been debunked, but over 75 percent of educators still
endorse learning styles, and many schools say they use
awards to recognize excellent student attendance.
We should not be surprised when people have
incorrect notions on what research says works-
education research is littered with published papers
on a range of practical topics that either do not
replicate previous findings or suggest massively
inflated effects.

Educational policymakers and practitioners need
to understand how study designs and research
practices influence the reproducibility and credibility
of a study's findings. This is easier said than done,
but there are a couple of initial indicators that suggest
a research finding is "real" and worth implementing.
First, to disentangle whether a practice causes
improvement or is merely associated with it, we need
to use research methods that can reliably identify
causal relationships. And the best way to determine
whether a practice causes an outcome is to conduct
a randomized controlled trial (or "RCT," meaning
participants were randomly assigned to being
exposed to the practice under study or not being
exposed to it).
Second, policymakers and practitioners evaluating
research studies should have more confidence in

An Educator's Wisdom Is Evidence
Researchers don't have a monolopy on knowledge

T

By Joseph Murphy
MURPHY is an education
professor and the associate
dean for special projects
at Vanderbilt University's
Peabody College.

he drive to use
evidence to
inform action in
education has an
essential problem:
the academic
community's
almost religious belief that scientific
evidence is the only evidence that has
legitimacy. We have arrived at the position where other sources of knowledge
are not only devalued, they are rarely
acknowledged. Scientifically valid
knowledge is widely regarded in the
education research community as the
only knowledge worth having. A draft
paper recently presented at a national
conference asserted disapprovingly:
"Teachers do not use evidence," referring to the scientific variety.
As an academic who began as a
teacher, I disagree. Such statements
are not only arrogant, they are

16 | EDUCATION WEEK | October 30 , 2019 | www.edweek.org/go/opinion

inaccurate. Dominant educational
practices drawn from scientific
research can be both wrong and
damaging-witness the long-held
but now discredited conclusion
that teaching children reading and
mathematics before the age of 8 was a
poor use of time.
Scientific evidence is not the only
source of knowledge nor is it the
source of knowledge that always holds
high ground in decisionmaking. Two
other important kinds of knowledge
are what might best be labeled craft
knowledge and moral knowledge.
Craft knowledge stems from the
understanding gathered over time
by practitioners, including through
stories, ad hoc observations, and
intuition. It is the evidence that usually
legitimizes professional judgment in
our field, in part because scientific
knowledge is not available or cannot

be generalized to the thousands of
different situations educators face
daily. Another strength of craft
knowledge is its encapsulation in
stories, which are memorable and
therefore available to guide action in
the moment.
I have often seen this evidence
ridiculed and dismissed by professors
and policymakers. And yet what I
consider the most valuable evidence
I've encountered in my teaching career
falls into the craft category. When I
taught 1st grade in a poor, rural school
in North Carolina in the 1970s, I had
a tough little boy named Benjamin
for a student. One day he appeared
at the door of the classroom crying.
"Someone stole my 3 Musketeers bar,"
he snuffled.
I was on the verge of seeing this issue
only through my own eyes and my own
understanding of the action: a missing

candy bar. But some instinct made me
listen instead.
"My father gave me that 3
Musketeers," Benjamin said, trying
to sum up the meaning of such a rare
treat in his young life. To try to match
the weight of Benjamin's emotion, I
spoke with the whole class, explaining
what the loss of the candy bar really
meant to Benjamin. We talked about
"hurt" and how "we" had the ability to
help Benjamin be happy again. When
we returned to class after lunch and
play time, the candy bar was back in
Benjamin's cubby.
That lesson was perhaps the most
powerful in my teaching career, and
I've shared it many times with my
students who are aspiring teachers. If
you don't understand a problem from
the student's point of view, you are not
likely to be able to solve it.
Knowledge from the real world of


http://www.edweek.org/go/opinion

Education Week - October 30, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 30, 2019

Education Week - October 30, 2019
Deep in the Woods, a Test Of Leadership and Resolve
Minimum Wage Hikes Stress Districts
State Bans on Bilingual Ed. Nearly Extinct
Briefly Stated
Q&A: 5 Big Ed-Tech Problems And How to Solve Them
Later Starts: Do They Help?
What the Research Says
Elizabeth Warren’s K-12 Plan Spotlights Funding, Charters
Higher-Ed. Legislation Bubbling in Congress
Raising the Bar for Evidence In Education
An Educator’s Wisdom Is Evidence
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Science Fact vs. Science Fiction
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - State Bans on Bilingual Ed. Nearly Extinct
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 2
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 4
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Q&A: 5 Big Ed-Tech Problems And How to Solve Them
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - What the Research Says
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 7
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Elizabeth Warren’s K-12 Plan Spotlights Funding, Charters
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Higher-Ed. Legislation Bubbling in Congress
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 10
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 11
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 12
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 13
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 14
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 15
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - An Educator’s Wisdom Is Evidence
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - 17
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - Science Fact vs. Science Fiction
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - October 30, 2019 - CW4
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