Education Week - October 23, 2013 - (Page 6)

New Student Majority in South and West: Poor Children Study finds poverty rising in every state since 2000 By Sarah D. Sparks Nearly half of all American public school students now live in poverty, and in broad swaths of the South and Southwest, state supports have not kept pace with significant and rapidly rising majorities of poor students in classrooms, a new report finds. In 17 states spanning nearly all of the South, Southwest, and West Coast, a majority of public school students qualified for free or reduced-price meals in 2011, according to the analysis released last week by the Atlantabased Southern Education Foundation. That's up from four states in 2000, and the study found all states have seen a rapid rise in student poverty during the last decade. Thirty-six states now have statewide poverty rates of more than 40 percent in schools. Mississippi's rate now tops 70 percent. That deepening poverty likely will complicate already-fraught political discussions on how to educate American students, as prior research has shown students are significantly more at risk academically in schools with 40 percent or higher concentrations of poverty. "Once you get above a majority of students in poverty, it becomes increasingly difficult to deal with the problems they've got, and increasingly those problems come to define the direction of the whole school," said Steve T. Suitts, the vice president of the foundation and the author of the study. Urban areas in every part of the country now have majorities of students in poverty, from 54 percent in Western cities to 71 percent in the Northeast. But nationwide, two out of five students in the suburbs also are poor. In the South and West, the share is closer to half. 'No Place to Get Away' Mr. Suitts said he found it "stunning" that three out of every four districts in 15 states across the southern half of the country now have at least 50 percent of their students living in poverty-and often much more. "That pretty well means there's no place you can get away" from concentrated poverty, Mr. Suitts said. While the recent Great Recession added to family hardships, Mr. Suitts said the rise in Exception to the Trend For example, Mr. Suitts pointed to Arizona, the only state in the Southwest with a poverty rate under half, at 45.5 percent. While the state has immigrant and American Indian students- both of whom historically have had higher rates of poverty-it has relatively few students overall compared with its large senior retired population, serving to keep the poverty rate lower. Natasha Ushomirsky, a senior policy and data analyst at the Education Trust, a Washington-based nonprofit that advocates for educational equity, said she wasn't surprised by the sharp increase in poverty, and said neither education policy nor government supports have dealt with the change. poverty is multidimensional. The states hardest hit by poverty have also seen the fastest population growth, due in part but not entirely from immigration. While low-income families are no bigger than they were historically, the overall population has greyed and higher-income parents have been having fewer children now compared to decades past, the report found. That's led to a higher proportion of schoolchildren in poverty. "The reality is right now, our education system is set up in a way that takes the kids who have the least outside of school and gives them less inside of school, too," Ms. Ushomirsky said. "We spend less on them per pupil, expect less from them ... and give them less access to the best teachers." As poverty has deepened nationwide, the foundation also found most state supports for low-income children have not kept pace. While poverty grew 40 percent in the Midwest and 33 percent in the South in the decade from 2001-2011, per-pupil expenditures grew 12 percent in each of those regions. In the West, per-student spending grew 7 percent while the poverty rate jumped by 31 percent. Only in the Northeast did spending growth, at 28 percent, keep ahead of student poverty growth, at 21 percent. Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to "A New Majority: Low-Income Students in the South and Nation." www.edweek.org/links. The Inside School Research blog tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/go/ insideschoolresearch School Poverty Said to Hurt College Access By Sarah D. Sparks & Caralee J. Adams When it comes to sending high school graduates to college and ensuring they succeed, a school's poverty can be a bigger barrier than a diverse student body or a rural or inner-city locale. In what is described as the first national study of its kind on college transitions and persistence, the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center found high-poverty high schools sent little more than half their class of 2012 graduates to college the following fall, compared with 70 percent of graduates from higher-income high schools. The data are drawn from 3,000 public high schools in the clearinghouse's StudentTracker program. The center provides research, reporting, and verification services to high schools and colleges that pay an annual fee for school-level data. Digging into the data, the researchers found high-poverty schools followed very similar patterns of college enrollment and persistence at both two- and four-year colleges, regardless of whether they were located in urban or rural areas, or whether at least 40 percent of their students were members of minorities. Only in higher-income schools was the racial makeup of the enrollment associated with lower college attendance, and even there, it was smaller than the gap between rich and poor. "What we see here is there's a much bigger difference in college-enrollment rates based on poverty level than race or geography," said Douglas T. Shapiro, the executive director of the Herndon, Va.-based clearinghouse's research center. "The big divider here is lowincome schools," Mr. Shapiro said. The results support previous find- ings that students in high-poverty schools are more likely to choose two-year colleges than four-year ones, though the study did not analyze how colleges' selectivity-or cost-played into students' choices. "The reality is poverty is a factor that affects achievement, and we cannot continue to ignore it," Daniel A. Domenech, the executive director of the American Association of School Administrators, said at a briefing on the report in Washington last week. While teacher quality, curriculum, and pedagogy all have been shown to affect student learning, so have supports outside the school, such as whether children have had breakfast or parent support, he said. "It's not an issue of equality. What we need is equity. These kids need more," Mr. Domenech said, including preschool support, wraparound programs, high school guidance, and information about colleges. Transitions and Transfers Mr. Shapiro was quick to acknowledge that, because the clearinghouse's data were taken only from schools participating in his organization's StudentTracker program, the study sample does not represent American students overall. It gives a pretty detailed picture, though: More than 2.3 million students-about a quarter of all high school graduates in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 2010 and 2012-were tracked from graduation well into their college careers. Moreover, the clearinghouse tracked students from college to college, in private and public institutions, and at schools both in and out of the state where they had graduated, providing what is seen as an unprecedented look at stu- 6 | EDUCATION WEEK | October 23, 2013 | www.edweek.org POSTSECONDARY PERSISTENCE Graduates of higher-income high schools, regardless of whether they are located in cities or rural areas, are more likely to stay in college beyond the first year. Researchers said that the average income level of a school's student body was also a better predictor of college persistence than its racial or ethnic makeup. Overall Two-Year Institutions Four-Year Institutions SOURCE: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center dents' persistence in college. Students from low-income high schools did make up for a little of the initial college-enrollment gap over the course of the first two years after high school. In the winter and spring semesters after graduation, an additional 4 percent to 6 percent of students from wealthier schools enrolled in college than had in the fall immediately after high school. For students from low-income schools, later enrollments boosted college-going rates by 6 percent to 7 percent. The pattern held the second year after high school, suggesting that a significant majority of graduates from all school types eventually made it to college. The clearinghouse plans to provide annual updates, which Mr. Shapiro said could help fill in some of the blanks in transition and progression rates in the initial report. For Higher-Income, Low-Minority Urban Schools 77% 94% 86% Higher-Income, Rural Schools example, the study counts all U.S. Census-labeled city, suburban, and town schools as "urban," which may paper over differences between suburban and inner-city schools. It also does not break out rates of college enrollment or persistence for students in individual racial or ethnic groups. The schools in the group's data program have received more detailed individual reports privately, however. "The hope is that, over time, high schools and districts in the United States will be able to use the informa- 75% 93% tion to help catalyze thinking at the local level on how to improve their respective higher-education-readiness rates," Mr. Shapiro said. Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to "High School Benchmarks 2013." www.edweek.org/links. The COLLEGE BOUND blog tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/go/collegebound 80% Low-Income, High-Minority Urban Schools 72% 88% 81% Low-Income, Low-Minority Urban Schools 73% 89% 79% Low-Income Rural Schools 71% 87% Higher-Income, High-Minority Urban Schools 86% 77% 91% 88% http://www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org/go/collegebound http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 23, 2013

Education Week - October 23, 2013
Colorado Tax Boosting K-12 Up to Voters
Paddling Persists in U.S. Schools
Health-Care Law Raises Questions For Districts
K12 Inc. Learning Difficult Lessons This School Year
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
New Student Majority in South and West: Poor Children
School Poverty Said to Hurt College Access
Media Group Calls on Companies To Protect Students’ Personal Data
D.C. Teachers Improved After Overhaul Of Evaluations, Pay
Blogs of the Week
K-12 Advocates Remain Braced For Fiscal Fight
Illinois Among Outliers With No NCLB Waiver
Appeal Argued on Affirmative-Action Ban
The Public School Ownership Gap
We Need a National Monument to Teachers
Changing the World, One Student at a Time
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Common Core’s Power for Disadvantaged Students

Education Week - October 23, 2013

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