Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 15


IMPLEMENTATION STUDIES
The broadest look at how schools have implemented personalizedlearning strategies comes via the federal Education Department, which
gave more than $500 million to 21 districts, consortia, and charter networks in 2012 and 2013 as part of its Race to the Top-District program.
Unfortunately, the research findings to date from those grantees are
not particularly deep, and the department's own reports have sometimes drawn conclusions that don't seem warranted by the available
evidence.
For example, a set of recent case studies claimed that personalized
learning had sparked "cultural shifts and transformed student learning" in such places as Miami-Dade County, Fla., and New Haven, Calif.
To back that up, the report cited largely soft and self-reported findings, such as teachers saying they are now more comfortable taking
classroom risks.
Department officials do say that many of their grantees show signs
of promise on "leading indicators," including lower suspension rates
for middle and high school students. Some grantees have also seen
student-achievement growth, both on state exams and local interim
assessments. The department expects more
substantial evaluation reports to be released,
beginning next year.
Other implementation studies of note include
an ongoing look at a personalized-learning initiative in the Baltimore County district, where
early results are mixed, and a generally positive
case-study examination of California's Summit Schools charter network. Earlier this year,
the Center on Reinventing Public Education, a
nonprofit research center, also looked at the financial impact of implementing personalizedlearning models, finding that money often went
more to salaries, facilities, and operations than
to technology and that schools often do a poor
job of anticipating their costs.
Overall, though, the state of research around
real-world implementations of personalizedlearning models remains muddled and contentious.
Just look at New York City, where a nonprofit group called
New Classrooms has been spreading a blended-learning approach to middle school math called School of One. In the
model, up to 90 children share one large classroom with multiple
teachers. Students work primarily on computers, progressing at their
own pace through algorithm-generated "playlists" tailored to their
individual needs.
Two studies by different researchers at Columbia University reached
different conclusions.
The first covered 22 sites, but had a weak approach to comparing
School of One students with children elsewhere. The results looked
quite encouraging: By their second year in the program, School of One
students' math skills had improved at a rate 47 percent faster than the
national average, and those who started out the furthest behind made
the largest gains. New Classrooms trumpeted the results aggressively.
The following September, though, another evaluation reached far
less enthusiastic conclusions. That study used a much more rigorous methodology, but only included a handful of School of One sites.
It found "neither very large positive nor very large negative effects
relative to the math instruction that students would have otherwise
received."

Two studies of
New York City's
School of One
program
reached very
different
conclusions.

Students in the program also reported consistently feeling like they
learned more when working directly with a teacher.
New Classrooms has barely mentioned those results, leading some
observers to accuse the group of being more interested in positive public relations than helping the field learn what actually works.
For educators and administrators on the ground, it all adds up to
continued uncertainty about who and what to trust.

SPECIFIC SOFTWARE PROGRAMS
Perhaps the most-cited research into a particular digital tool used
to support personalized learning is RAND's 2013 research on the effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra 1, an adaptive-software program for teaching math, originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. The study was a rigorous randomized-control
trial, undertaken in a variety of real-world schools, putting it pretty
close to the gold standard for education research.
Overall, the study found that compared with textbook-based curricula, Cognitive Tutor "significantly improved algebra scores for high
school students," but that positive effect emerged only in the second
year of schools' implementation.
Less-rigorous recent studies have examined other popular math
software programs, including DreamBox, Khan Academy, and ST
Math. Researchers generally found encouraging signs of positive effects on student achievement, and teachers and students typically
gave positive reports on their experiences. But actual usage of the
programs varied considerably, and researchers were unable to definitively attribute positive outcomes to the software alone.
Beyond that, the research base behind
specific products is often very thin, with far
more poorly designed studies done by companies themselves than robust evaluations
conducted by independent third parties.
As a result, school and district leaders who
want to pursue personalized learning need
to be particularly savvy consumers, said Bart
Epstein, the CEO of the Jefferson Education
Accelerator, a network of researchers, educators and entrepreneurs based at the University of Virginia.
That means asking hard questions about
any claims a vendor is making, he said.
It also means understanding that context matters-just because a software program appears to have worked in one district
doesn't mean it's going to work in another.
And perhaps most importantly, Epstein
said, those on the ground need to understand
that they're responsible for helping generate good research about personalized learning, too. Small districts might not be able to
contract with RAND, but they can often reach
Bart Epstein
out to a local university or engage in what's
called "short cycle" evaluation, to get formaJefferson Education
Accelerator
tive feedback as they go.
"Any district that is bringing in a major
new program should absolutely be budgeting
for real research support," Epstein said. "Everyone wants someone
else to spend the time and money to study [personalized learning.]
But it's all of our responsibility." l

"

Any district
that is bringing
in a major new
program
should
absolutely be
budgeting for
real research
support."

Personalized Learning: The Next Generation / edweek.org/go/personalized-learning

|

15


http://www.edweek.org/go/personalized-learning

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 19, 2016

Education Week - October 19, 2016
Contents
Data Dive
From the Editor
Students Pinpoint What They Need
Investments in Personalized Learning Rise, but Research on Its Impact Is Lacking
q&a: Educational Innovation and Evaluation
Numbers to Watch
Rfps Reveal District, State Priorities
Socialemotonial Learning via Tech
Middle School Students Test Out Happify
8 ‘red Flags’ to Look for in Products
From the Archives: Checking Up on the Current Status of Personalized Learning Pioneers
This Issue Includes the Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Education Week - October 19, 2016
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Cover2
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Contents
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 2
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 3
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Data Dive
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - From the Editor
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 6
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Students Pinpoint What They Need
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 8
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 9
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 10
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 11
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 12
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 13
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Investments in Personalized Learning Rise, but Research on Its Impact Is Lacking
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 15
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - q&a: Educational Innovation and Evaluation
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 17
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 18
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 19
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Numbers to Watch
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 21
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Rfps Reveal District, State Priorities
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 23
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Socialemotonial Learning via Tech
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 25
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 26
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 27
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Middle School Students Test Out Happify
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 8 ‘red Flags’ to Look for in Products
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 30
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - From the Archives: Checking Up on the Current Status of Personalized Learning Pioneers
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 32
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 33
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - This Issue Includes the Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 35
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - 36
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Cover3
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - Cover4
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - S1
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - S2
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - S3
Education Week - October 19, 2016 - S4
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