Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 22

Small 'Nudges'
Can Push
Students in the
Right Direction
 BY SAR AH D. SPARKS

Be they toddlers, teenagers, teachers, or
parents, people don't like being told what to
do, and research has shown one of the quickest ways to lower motivation is to try to force
people to make changes-even if they agree
with the end goal.
"Given the fact that the greatest returns
of education come with a delay of months (or
even years), it seems currently, schools lack
adequate incentive schemes to make pupils
perform well," concluded a team of behavioral
economists led by University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt for a recent discussion by the
Center on European Economic Research.
That's why Levitt and other education researchers increasingly are exploring "nudges"-
low-cost interventions that work to influence behavior by changing how or
when choices are offered. These
interventions usually involve
small, cheap-to-implement
changes, and some have
shown significant results.
For example, Stanford
University motivation
researcher Carol Dweck said
nudge interventions show
promise in helping students and
the adults around them develop a
strong academic growth mindset, the belief
that academic skills are not fixed but can be
improved through effort. "We've discovered
over time there are so many triggers in the
environment that put any of us into more of a
fixed mindset," Dweck said. "Change is about
recognizing when that happens and knowing
how to trigger an environment that encourages a growth mindset."
Here are five areas in which behavioral
nudges are gaining ground.

22

| Education Week * October 18, 2017

Making the (Advanced
Placement) Grade
"Small Changes Make a Big Difference: How Behavioral
Science Improved Participation in Advanced Placement"

Nearly 300,000 students with potential to
earn college credits through Advanced Placement courses never take the tests, according
to the College Board, which runs AP.
The group found that high
scores on the PSAT, generally
given in 10th grade, are the
strongest predictor of
whether a student will
pass an AP course with
a high enough grade to
earn college credit-but
many students who
score well on the PSAT
don't go on to take an AP
course. That's why College
Board piloted a change to the
way it reports students' scores on
the PSAT: for students with high scores,
it added a message detailing their potential to
succeed in an AP course.
In a pilot study of 400 10th graders in
the Oakland, Calif., district, the group found
among students with the same PSAT
scores, those who received the
personalized message were
49 percentage points more
likely to participate in AP
courses than those who
got a standard report of
their score. Those students
were also significantly more
likely to take and pass more
AP tests with higher scores.

Text Your Way to College
"Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to
Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence"

From filing financial-aid paperwork on time
to finding help moving to campus, the challenges for low-income high school graduates
don't stop when they get accepted to college. As many as 20 percent of low-income
high school graduates accepted to college
don't end up enrolling.

Researchers Benjamin Castleman of
the University of Virginia and Lindsay Page of
the University of Pittsburgh developed a set of
personalized text messages that automatically
reminded high school students of upcoming
college deadlines, with links to the needed
forms and live help from counselors. A separate
set of automated texts reminded community
college freshmen to complete re-enrollment and
financial-aid update forms each year.
The high school program cost $7 per student,
and the community college program cost $5
per student, but they
both show significant benefits. High
school students who
received reminder
texts were 7 percentage points more likely
to enroll in college than
those who didn't, 70 percent
versus 63 percent. And 68 percent of community college students who
got the reminders completed their sophomore year, 14 percentage points higher
than those who didn't. For students with
high school grade point averages below
3.0 out of 5, the benefits were even bigger; their likelihood of enrolling in college
and staying through at least their second
year was at least 20 percentage points
greater if they received reminder texts.

Fewer Suspensions, More Respect
"Brief Intervention to Encourage Empathic Discipline
Cuts Suspension Rates in Half Among Adolescents"

Students and parents aren't the only ones
who can benefit from small interventions.
Stanford University researchers Jason
Okonofua, David Paunesku, and Gregory
Walton randomly assigned half the teachers at five middle schools to complete a
short online activity designed to encourage them to empathize with and respect
students while disciplining them.
Students of teachers who finished the
activity were suspended at half the rate of
other teachers' students over the course



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 18, 2017

Education Week - October 18, 2017
Schools Fight Back Against Chronic Absenteeism
To Fill ‘Mentoring Gap,’ Schools Get Creative
A Benefit for Working Parents: Expert Advice on Schools
‘Respectful’ Approach to In-School Suspensions
Does Paying Kids to Do Well in School Actually Work?
For English-Learners, Peer Pressure Can Be a Good Thing
Small ‘Nudges’ Can Push Students In The Right Direction
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover1
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Education Week - October 18, 2017
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 4
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Schools Fight Back Against Chronic Absenteeism
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 6
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 7
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 8
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - To Fill ‘Mentoring Gap,’ Schools Get Creative
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 10
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 11
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - A Benefit for Working Parents: Expert Advice on Schools
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 13
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 14
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - ‘Respectful’ Approach to In-School Suspensions
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 16
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 17
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Does Paying Kids to Do Well in School Actually Work?
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 19
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - For English-Learners, Peer Pressure Can Be a Good Thing
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 21
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Small ‘Nudges’ Can Push Students In The Right Direction
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 23
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 24
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover4
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW4
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com