Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 18

Does Paying
Kids to Do
Well in School
Actually Work?
 BY ARIANNA PROTHERO

Adults have long used rewards-or let's face it,
bribes- to prod children into doing what they
want. But it wasn't until the last decade that
economists started looking earnestly at how
educators could leverage incentives, such as
gift cards, scholarship money, and in some
cases cold hard cash, to motivate students to
go to school and perform better on tests.
Much of that interest was driven by the
higher demands for accountability that
were ushered in by the federal No Child
Left Behind Act, passed in 2001 and since
replaced by Congress.
With at least a decade of research now
behind us, here's what's been learned about
using incentives in education and how schools
are deploying these ideas today.

What counts as an incentive?
Technically, anything that motivates a student
to do something is an incentive. That could be
as simple as putting a sticker on an aced quiz or
rewarding perfect attendance with a new bike.
Researchers, however, typically focus on
how financial incentives affect student behavior, and even that of teachers and parents.

What has the research on
incentives in education found?
"This is something that every incentive paper
starts with: the research is mixed," said
Lucrecia Santibañez, an associate professor
at Claremont Graduate University's School of
Educational Studies.
That's true both in the U.S. and internationally, she said. How well an incentive program
works depends on its design.
One of the primary architects of this work
is Roland Fryer, an economist at Harvard
University. In a series of experiments through

18

| Education Week * October 18, 2017

the mid-2000s, he paid out more than $6 million to more than 18,000 low-income students
in Chicago, Dallas, New York City, and the
District of Columbia to try to improve their test
performance.
The major takeaway from Fryer's research
is that inducements are more likely to work if a
program incentivizes things students feel they
can control. In technical terms, that means
rewarding inputs instead of outputs, said Jeffrey
Livingston, an associate professor of economics at Bentley University. Students don't necessarily know how to improve their test scores,
so even if they're motivated to try harder, that
doesn't mean they can actually do better.
"If the incentive is tied to the performance
on the test, the effects are small if there at
all," said Livingston. "But if you tie it to the
preparation for the test, the studying, like
incentivizing reading a book
or doing practice tests
... that tends to have
much bigger effects."
Incentives are also
more likely to work
for students who only
need a little improvement to earn a passing
grade on a test.
"If you're miles away
from it, no matter how
much effort you put in, the
odds of reaching are still low, so
- G ett y
why brother?" he said.

Why are incentives
controversial?
Incentives have backfired for some schools.
In 2015, a New Jersey district came under
fire from some parents when it announced
plans to award gift cards to students for showing up to take the state's new standardized
tests. The aim was to increase participation
rates in the PARCC exams, at a time when
parents across the country were protesting
the standardized tests by refusing to have their
children participate.
There's also a larger debate about making
learning transactional, said Douglas Harris, professor of economics and the director of Education Research Alliance at Tulane University.
"If your goal is to instill a love of learning, paying students to read books doesn't

really do that," he said. "It doesn't reflect
a view of teaching and learning that most
educators support. They don't want it to
be transactional."

How are schools using
incentives?
Incentives vary as much as the schools that
use them-from modest to massive.
The Union R-XI school district in central
Missouri offered as much as $100 to students
to entice perfect attendance at its summer
school program.
Tennessee's Shelby County district
has offered Memphis Grizzlies tickets to
students with good attendance. Success
Academy, a charter school network, has
offered small prizes, including Nerf guns,
to encourage good behavior.
While the research may be
mixed, some school officials
say they are seeing success with their incentive
programs.
"I think rallying
around something
that's such a positive,
fun way to improve attendance helps change the
culture of the school," said
Megan Berceau, the intervention specialist for Utah's Granite
school district. The schools in her
district use small, innovative incentives
such as allowing students to ride non-motorized scooters down hallways during break as a
reward for good attendance.
The key to making incentives work is getting inside your students' heads and figuring
out what they really want, said Allan Markley,
the superintendent of the Raytown school
district near Kansas City, Mo.
"A lot of kids are working to support their
family, a lot of them are homeless. What
can we do to entice kids to come to school?
They are dealing with a lot and coming
to school may not be their number one
priority," said Markley. "So, what does every
16-year-old dream of? Something with four
wheels, maybe?"
That's right. Raytown last year gave cars
to two students, who were selected by raffle
among those with top attendance records.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 18, 2017

Education Week - October 18, 2017
Schools Fight Back Against Chronic Absenteeism
To Fill ‘Mentoring Gap,’ Schools Get Creative
A Benefit for Working Parents: Expert Advice on Schools
‘Respectful’ Approach to In-School Suspensions
Does Paying Kids to Do Well in School Actually Work?
For English-Learners, Peer Pressure Can Be a Good Thing
Small ‘Nudges’ Can Push Students In The Right Direction
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover1
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Education Week - October 18, 2017
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 4
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Schools Fight Back Against Chronic Absenteeism
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 6
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 7
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 8
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - To Fill ‘Mentoring Gap,’ Schools Get Creative
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 10
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 11
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - A Benefit for Working Parents: Expert Advice on Schools
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 13
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 14
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - ‘Respectful’ Approach to In-School Suspensions
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 16
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 17
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Does Paying Kids to Do Well in School Actually Work?
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 19
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - For English-Learners, Peer Pressure Can Be a Good Thing
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 21
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Small ‘Nudges’ Can Push Students In The Right Direction
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 23
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - 24
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - Cover4
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - October 18, 2017 - CW4
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com