Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 28

COMMENTARY Jonathan Bouw for Education Week 'Brain Friendly' Practices for Adolescent Success By Thomas Armstrong O ver the past 15 years, neuroscientists have been making significant progress in transforming our ideas about how the brain develops between the ages of 11 and 20. While there has been substantial coverage of these findings in the popular press, comparatively little of this research has filtered its way into the debate about secondary school reform. This seems strange, given the current emphasis in education on evidence-based research. It seems to me that instead of focusing so much attention on "effect sizes" and other abstruse statistical outcomes, educators should be directing more of their attention to the evidence coming from brain-scan studies and other neuroscience research methods, which provide important clues about how we should be teaching our middle and high school students. The adolescent brain-research finding that most typically breaks into education news relates to adolescent sleep patterns and how teenagers may require later start times for the school day in order to be at their peak efficiency in learning new material. But there is so much more about the adolescent brain that middle school and high school educators should be aware of, both as a motivator to engage in "brain friendly" practices and also to inhibit the use of "brain hostile" practices in the classroom. Educators should know, for example, that the process of dendrite "pruning" that sculpts a more efficient brain moves from the back of the brain | INSIDE | 22 to the front over the course of the first 20 years of life, and that the prefrontal cortex, which is the region controlling inhibition of impulses and the ability to plan, reflect, self-monitor, and make good decisions, doesn't fully develop until the early 20s. This means that while the limbic system or "emotional brain" is working at close to full capacity by early adolescence, the areas of the brain that could temper those feelings and impulses are still in the process of being constructed. Consequently, key secondary school reform efforts need to emphasize learning activities involving metacognition, goal-setting, planning, working memory, reflection on one's learning, and frequent opportunities to make responsible choices. Research indicates that while adolescents are able to reason like adults by the age of 15 or 16, they can do this only under "cold cognition" settings (e.g., where there is no emotional pull or peer influence). When they're around their peers or in an emotionally charged situation ("hot cognition"), teens' prefrontal-cortex functions don't work as well, which is why a teenager will respond affirmatively to an anti-drug curriculum in the classroom, but then go out and smoke weed with his friends at night. What is essential for kids at this time of life is to be engaged in real-life learning experiences and peer-learning connections that put them under conditions of "hot cognition," where educators can help them along in the process of integrating their impulsiveness (positively viewed as excitement and motivation) with their reasoning abilities. The implications for reform of secondary school are clear. Schools should provide more opportuni- A CALL TO ACTION FOR K-12 LEADERS 28 | EDUCATION WEEK | October 12, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary 22 A FIELD GUIDE TO GIRL EMPOWERMENT " Public posting of grades and test scores ... humiliates and shames students in front of their highly valued peers." ties for students to be involved in apprenticeships, internships, service learning, community-based learning, small peer-learning groups, entrepreneur-based programs, and student-directed project-based learning. Courses need to be given in middle school and high school that teach students about how their brains work, how to use metacognition to direct their learning, and how to selfregulate their feelings under conditions of duress. Research suggests that the adolescent brain- subject to the vagaries of dopamine (which connects to reward and pleasure) and serotonin (which connects to well-being and happiness) in the brain-is more susceptible to stress than the brains of either children or adults. Consequently, a key part of the secondary school curriculum should involve the teaching of stress-reduction methods, such as mindfulness meditation, yoga, and aerobic activity; exercise breaks during class; a strong physical education curriculum; and a broadly based extracurricular sports program for all students, not just the star athletes. Findings from adolescent-brain research also suggest a number of things that educators should stop doing so much of at the middle school and high school levels. For example: * Classroom teaching that focuses largely on delivering content through lectures and textbooks fails to engage the emotional brain and leaves unPAGE 24 > THOMAS ARMSTRONG is an educator, psychologist, and the author of 16 books, including The Power of the Adolescent Brain: Strategies for Teaching Middle and High School Students (ASCD, 2016). 23 THE WINNING EQUATION IN MATH EDUCATION 24 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 12, 2016

Bilingual Education Poised for a Comeback in California Schools
Cultural Literacy Creator Carries On Campaign
New Teachers Turn to Web for Mentoring
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Modern E-Rate Puts Telephones On Hold in K-12
Sides Seek to Avert Chicago Teachers’ Strike
Labor Dispute Simmering In Buffalo, N.Y.
Shooting Reignites Safety Concerns
Kan. Governor: Tax Hike Needed If State Loses Funding Case
Court to Weigh Level of Benefits for Special Ed. Students
Literacy Program Reflects Clinton Policy Agenda
Snapshot: School Finance A Judge Gets Tough
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
PAUL REVILLE: A Call to Action For K-12 Leaders
LYN MIKEL BROWN: A Field Guide to Girl Empowerment
JOHN URSCHEL: The Winning Equation In Math Education
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Modern E-Rate Puts Telephones On Hold in K-12
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 2
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 3
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Labor Dispute Simmering In Buffalo, N.Y.
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Shooting Reignites Safety Concerns
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Kan. Governor: Tax Hike Needed If State Loses Funding Case
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 9
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 10
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 11
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 12
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 13
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 14
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 15
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Literacy Program Reflects Clinton Policy Agenda
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 17
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Snapshot: School Finance A Judge Gets Tough
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 19
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 20
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 21
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - LYN MIKEL BROWN: A Field Guide to Girl Empowerment
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - JOHN URSCHEL: The Winning Equation In Math Education
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 25
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 27
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 28
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 29
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 30
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 31
Education Week - October 12, 2016 - 32
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
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