Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 26

COMMENTARY T By Jessica Sager Getty The Empathy Gap And How to Fill It he empathy gap is a deficit that most of us suffer from unconsciously. And in education, it is paralyzing the progress of many students. The empathy gap is an inability to recognize and respond to the feelings of others, especially others we perceive as different from us and, most perniciously, those whose race is different from our own. This gap appears in multiple contexts, from physicians' perception of their patients' suffering to the way in which juries perceive criminal defendants. It mutes our reactions to atrocities in Aleppo and Baghdad, even as we show fellow feeling to the victims of terror in Brussels and Nice. The recent tragedies across our own country-the bombings in New York and New Jersey; the mass murders in Orlando and Dallas; the police shootings of Keith Lamont Scott, Terence Crutcher, Tyre King, Philando Castile, and Alton Sterling, among others-widen this gap. The bias, prejudice, misunderstanding, and hate that mark this presidential campaign widen it more. The empathy gap is particularly acute for white people, when they try to imagine the feelings of black people. In education, it stops administrators, teachers, staff, and students from fully understanding, acknowledging, and addressing issues that are critical to learning. As a result, the disparities in achievement and preparation within our system are insidious and pervasive. And they are anathema to the American vision of equality and justice. We don't start out with an empathy gap. A researcher at the University of Virginia in a 2014 study examined a group of mostly white children's perceptions of the pain experienced by other children. At the age of 5, children exhibited no differences in their empathic understanding of others' pain. By age 7, however, the children in the study rated the pain of black children as less severe than the pain felt by their white counterparts. And the differences were even greater in the 10-year-old group. Early-childhood education is critical to youth development. In the earliest years, children are assembling the portfolio Trust: The Missing Ingredient in School Improvement O By Dara Barlin ne of the recent conversations in K-12 education has focused on creating environments of trust for students. Classrooms that are founded on trusting relationships enable students to take risks and make mistakes. They also teach young people how to learn from failure and develop the resilience they need to succeed in school and life. What is often missing from this conversation, however, is how a lack of trust among the adults who run our schools-including teachers, principals, and district personnel-can affect the success of the entire district. Unfortunately, many teachers and school leaders often experience a culture of blame and the fear of failure. As a consultant who has worked for more than 20 years with teachers' unions, policymakers, and departments of education in large urban school systems, I have seen firsthand why trust is so critical to the management of a healthy and successful school district. When teachers make mistakes, they know they are accountable to parents or face discipline by their principal. When principals make mistakes, they know they might get publicly chastised or tagged as ineffective by their school system's leaders. When district leaders make mistakes, they know they might draw criticism from local policymakers and the community, which can affect the district's reputation and, ultimately, their job security. There is an intense amount of pressure to get everything exactly right-to make every lesson plan perfect, every new initiative flawless, and every interaction with a parent or student superb. And if the adults who work in and operate our schools don't trust one another, it can stifle their ability and willingness to take risks or try new things. It can also easily lead to scapegoating. Without trust, our schools are hampered from making necessary progress. A lack of trust also has a huge impact on K-12's infamous revolving door. The average superintendent of a large urban school district sticks around for about three years, and it's no different for about 50 percent of principals nationwide. And within their first five years, 17 percent of all new teachers leave the classroom, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. This attrition does not model the perseverance schools want to instill in their students. A lack of trust among adults can affect students. Research by the Consortium on Chicago School Research shows that teachers in schools with flat or declining student 26 | EDUCATION WEEK | October 5, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary test scores are more likely to say that they do not trust one another, according to a report released in 2000 by the consortium's co-founders Penny Bender Sebring and Anthony S. Bryk. In contrast, in schools where teachers report strong trust and cooperation among adults, students said they felt safe and cared for, as well as more academically challenged. And stronger student test scores often bear this out. This issue is not just specific to school contexts. It's also been well documented in the corporate workplace. Douglas R. Conant, the former CEO of Campbell Soup Co., found a direct connection between employee trust and financial performance. And Google, which recently studied the conditions that help its employees work well, found that psychological safety-the ability to be vulnerable with others and feel comfortable taking risks-was the most critical condition for creating effective employee teams. Psychological safety for adults in any profession is a relatively new concept. It is unrealistic to think that anyone-especially educators who are juggling dozens of demands in any given moment-would instinctively know how to create the necessary conditions for trusting cultures. Many K-12 leaders themselves have been inculcated into environments that overemphasize outcomes and de-emphasize school culture. As the founder of DARE Consulting, an organization that helps education communities improve school outcomes, I recently created a professional-development program to help educators take the first steps toward building greater trust. The goal of the program is to help leaders develop psychologically safe spaces for their employees by de-escalating potential conflicts and building trust in the fast-paced school environment. It brings educators together to discuss underlying issues; offers ways to foster a growth mindset across teams; and provides tools for addressing conflicts in ways that can promote mutual support, intellectual curiosity, and positive change. The following conditions set the tone for building trust: * Using empathy as the starting point for change; * Celebrating individual and team progress, even when incremental; * Inspiring people to take action, rather than mandating it; * Using a team-oriented approach to problem-solving; and * Prioritizing time for regular feedback and effective communication. But talking about trust is not enough. A healthy school environment where educators and schools can flourish requires time, focus, an emphasis on empathy, and a good deal of practice before behaviors begin to shift. But when schools make the shift suc- http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 5, 2016

Dallas Expands Choices With Single-Gender Schools
Indiana’s Testing Woes Fuel Electoral Battles
New Teachers Make Significant Segment of Profession
Education Week - October 5, 2016
High Court Again Takes School Cases
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
2016 Sat Results: Slight Dips and Lots of Complications
New Data Tool Allows City-by- City Schooling Comparisons
Hunt Is on for Clues to Students’ Test-Taking Strategies
Shorter Grade Spans Are Linked to More Bullying, Study Finds
New Group to Push for Sel in Schools
Digital Directions: Fedex Targeted in Open Educational Resources Lawsuit
Storm Clouds Loom Over Push for Ed-Tech Law’s Renewal
Appraising Trump School Choice, Child-Care Plans
Personal Lens: A Vp Nominee’s Spouse on Education
Nevada High Court Deals Blow to School Choice Program
Jessica Sager: The Empathy Gap and How to Fill It
Dara Barlin: Trust: The Missing Ingredient in School Improvement
Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Voices: Having the Difficult Race-Bias Conversation
Letters
Kaya Henderson: 5 Lessons From an Outgoing Chancellor
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - High Court Again Takes School Cases
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 2
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 3
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 2016 Sat Results: Slight Dips and Lots of Complications
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 7
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - New Data Tool Allows City-by- City Schooling Comparisons
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Hunt Is on for Clues to Students’ Test-Taking Strategies
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Shorter Grade Spans Are Linked to More Bullying, Study Finds
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - New Group to Push for Sel in Schools
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 12
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Digital Directions: Fedex Targeted in Open Educational Resources Lawsuit
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 14
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 15
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 16
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 17
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Appraising Trump School Choice, Child-Care Plans
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Personal Lens: A Vp Nominee’s Spouse on Education
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Nevada High Court Deals Blow to School Choice Program
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 21
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 22
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 23
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 24
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 25
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Voices: Having the Difficult Race-Bias Conversation
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 29
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 30
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 31
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Kaya Henderson: 5 Lessons From an Outgoing Chancellor
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT4
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