Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 10

Shorter Grade Spans Are Linked to More Bullying, Study Finds By Sarah D. Sparks "What's the only thing worse than being the new kid in 8th grade? Being the new kid in 6th grade." Amy Ellen Schwartz's quip sounds like a joke, but it's not. The Syracuse University economics professor and her colleagues have found there's truth to the old "top dog, bottom dog" theory of the campus pecking order: A school's grade structure significantly affects its student hierarchy. As students move through grades, they gain social power, becoming more likely to take on leadership positions and less likely to be bullied. Now, there's evidence that separating students into a shorter 6-8 grade span in middle school intensifies bullying of lower-grade students and makes them feel less connected to school. Educators have known middle school is a problem area for a long time; prior studies have found that the transition from elementary to middle school can be harder on students than the transition to high school. When students move into middle school, they report higher rates of bullying, math and reading achievement declines, absenteeism rises, and students feel less connection to school. But why? Is it just the perfect storm of raging hormones meeting rising standards? "If it's just miserable to be 12 and better to be 15, that's not about the school," Schwartz said. "But that's not it. It matters where you stand in the grade span. And part of the reason grade span matters is you are grouping kids together in ways that create a top and a bottom." Feeling Safe at School .1 'TOP DOG' EFFECT BY GRADE CONFIGURATION In their new study in the September online-first issue of the American Educational Research Journal, Schwartz and colleagues at Syracuse and New York universities studied 500 New York City schools, which in the mid-2000s created hundreds of small schools in K-8, K-6, 6-8, 5-8, and 6-12 configurations. Based on a study of New York City schools, researchers found that students in the highest grade- the "top dogs"-reported less bullying and greater feelings of safety at school than those in the lowest grade. These benefits rose as the number of grades increased without exacting a cost on lowergrades students. Pecking Order The researchers analyzed reports of bullying, feelings of belonging, and engagement in schools among more than 90,000 students in schools of different grade spans. They tracked students who transferred between schools as well as those who progressed through grades at a single school or feeder pattern, to compare the differences between being a new student at school generally to being a member of an entry grade. They also looked at students' relative height, weight, and age to determine whether a school's social hierarchy was influenced by a student's experience in school or level of physical development. "Young adolescents are going through tremendous identity shifts," said Dru Tomlin, the director of middle-level services for the Association for Middle Level Education, who was not involved in the study. "Not only are they changing developmentally and physically faster than at any time in their lives besides 0-to-3, but they are changing socially and emotionally. They are prone to misreading not just verbal cues in language but also nonverbal cues. Middle grades are the landscape on which we need to focus on [social-emotional] learning." .05 Frequency of Bullying 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Even after controlling for students' background characteristics, class sizes, and school types, the researchers found that 6th graders at K-8 and 6-12 schools were less likely to report bullying, fighting, and gang activity, and more likely to report feeling safe and welcome at school and participating in school activities than did 6th graders at EEk W n o i t a c Edu des 6-8 schools. The fewer the grade levels below the "top dog" grade in a school, the bigger the gap between students in the top grade and those in the bottom grade on the school pecking order when it came to bullying, fights, gang activity, and whether students felt safe, welcome, and known at school. "I can say, I'm not surprised at all that 6-8 schools have higher rate of bullying," said David L. Hough, an education professor at Missouri State University, who has studied middle grade academics but was not involved in the new study. "When you have a lot of kids at close to the same age together, it's not as healthy an environment [as a broader age range]." ctions Digital Dire 2016 Relationships Key dAilY bre Aking news ion to ls court's decis A federal appea nt who gender stude side with a trans l restricted his restschoo g imsued after his have far-reachin room access could ls around the country this diplications for schoo legal clarity on that have lacked r majo visive issue. "a was calle d The decis ion Lesbian & " by the Gay, and it turning point ation Netw ork, ssions Strai ght Educ the tone for discu set help gender could tions for trans about accommoda school law experts wide, students nation Photos by Brandon Thibodeaux for Education Week By evie Blad m of Art. to the Dallas Museu recent field trip their findings. a vase during a do drawings of Texas, sketches museum and then High School in hunt through the nt at Plano Senior ct a scavenger right, to condu Art History stude AP below an Yen, tools, l Hope es and other digita Students use iPhon edia Images, Multim Better Online on New Look ati uc Ed ry sto Hi Give Art . Pantheon in Rome "transport" blocks from the how to virtually Figuring out through photo the classroom these creations is a challenge other means and s, print tos, decades-even that dates back ry have confor educators ers of art histo centuries. Teach to incorporate changes in ted an array of tinually adap Most recently, ology. techn tion digiimage cularly high-resoluand multinew tools, parti rsive technology, tal images, imme have brought about a funpAge 10> media textbooks, (301) 280-3100 / reprints@epe.org 10 | EDUCATION WEEK | October 5, 2016 | www.edweek.org 29 * April 27, The researchers also separately compared students who were new in any grade and students who were Court Si relatively taller than other students. t en ud With St While being the "new kid" did seem to On Title IX Could Affect lower students' sense of belonging at Federal Decision der Policies School Transgen any grade, a student's relative position in the grade-level pecking order had a stronger effect than whether he was new or smaller than other students. "It could just be that you are bullied by other kids when you start, and over time, you develop stronger social relationships in your school," Schwartz said. "By the time you get to the top, you have developed bonds that protect you." sal That could also help explain Vergara Rever : edweek.org $4 Educa tion * ial Projec ts in * © 2016 Editor of reco rd news pApe r year, AP Art e of an academic Over the cours students to remust get their History teachers and intellectually to works spond emotionally in galleries or historic sites found that are often away. thousands of miles l course covers pieces that The college-leve Cotta Warriors, ror Qin's Terra ce, and Carainclude Empe 's Shaanxi provin buried in China ew," which hangs ng of St. Matth vaggio's "Calli Francesi, a few of San Luigi dei in the church 5 6 7 8 Number of grades beneath 'top dog' 1 By Leo Doran 4 -.05 Vol. 35, No. Ation 's Amer icAn educ 3 SOURCE: American Educational Research Journal 1/5-PAGE HORIZONTAL Full-color and black-and-white reprints of articles and blog posts are available. Each customdesigned reprint is formatted with our logo and printed onto quality 8½ x 11 paper! 2 .C., Ga. Cheating in N.Y Students Found to Hurt in Virsaid. ct court judge A federal distri did not defer to the he ginia erred when Education's interpreof U.S. Department ation created under regul tation that a Amendments of tion Educa the a threeTitle IX of gender identity, Court it 1972 applies to the 4th U.S. Circu judge panel of said in a Richmond, Va., of Appeals, in week. the 2-1 decision last late panel sent appel al feder to The to the lower court original case back l of a preliminary indenia ,a reconsider its allow Gavin Grimm junction that would in Gloucester County, nt stude l high schoo at school. boy's restroom identiVa., to use the a girl but he now 15> Grimm was born pAge s, Leaves Question s Equity Concern down in Iowa Funding Show rves k Law to Tap Rese District Vows Cash-Strapped ii to Brea intencould lose his super goes ficials say Tate by the state if he dent's license given huk By Stephen Sawc dolla rs thous ands of con, Desp ite the PR, both pro and spent on glossy v. California case, ra ls over the Verga on by a state appea last week's decisi job protections er teach d : the court to uphol less flashy factor far a on d al law. hinge rnia constitution arcana of Califo ning, both sides in From the begin why, in schools with a wider grade span, 6th and 7th graders felt better about the school environment, but the youngest students did not report much of being bullied or feeling unwelcome in school. Students might be kinder to students far below them than those who are just beneath them on the pecking order. "Eighth graders are not going to pick on a bunch of 1st graders; 12th graders are not going to pick on 6th graders, because they are just so much younger," Schwartz said. Tomlin of the middle-level association agreed, but cautioned, "Gradelevel configurations alone don't necessarily mean you are going to have less bullying and better transition through the grade levels," he said. "Schools that do a lot of mentormentee relationships, where older students go in and tutor or mentor younger ones-schools that do those types of programs are doing it right. Students feel more comfortable, and parents feel more comfortable about younger students being in a building with older students." The findings build on a 2010 study, also in New York City schools, which found that students who attended K-8 schools were higher-achieving academically by the end of 8th grade than those who attended K-5 and then 6-8 schools. Visit the INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog, which tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/blogs http://www.edweek.org http://www.edweek.org/blogs http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 5, 2016

Dallas Expands Choices With Single-Gender Schools
Indiana’s Testing Woes Fuel Electoral Battles
New Teachers Make Significant Segment of Profession
Education Week - October 5, 2016
High Court Again Takes School Cases
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
2016 Sat Results: Slight Dips and Lots of Complications
New Data Tool Allows City-by- City Schooling Comparisons
Hunt Is on for Clues to Students’ Test-Taking Strategies
Shorter Grade Spans Are Linked to More Bullying, Study Finds
New Group to Push for Sel in Schools
Digital Directions: Fedex Targeted in Open Educational Resources Lawsuit
Storm Clouds Loom Over Push for Ed-Tech Law’s Renewal
Appraising Trump School Choice, Child-Care Plans
Personal Lens: A Vp Nominee’s Spouse on Education
Nevada High Court Deals Blow to School Choice Program
Jessica Sager: The Empathy Gap and How to Fill It
Dara Barlin: Trust: The Missing Ingredient in School Improvement
Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Voices: Having the Difficult Race-Bias Conversation
Letters
Kaya Henderson: 5 Lessons From an Outgoing Chancellor
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - High Court Again Takes School Cases
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 2
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 3
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 2016 Sat Results: Slight Dips and Lots of Complications
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 7
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - New Data Tool Allows City-by- City Schooling Comparisons
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Hunt Is on for Clues to Students’ Test-Taking Strategies
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Shorter Grade Spans Are Linked to More Bullying, Study Finds
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - New Group to Push for Sel in Schools
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 12
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Digital Directions: Fedex Targeted in Open Educational Resources Lawsuit
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 14
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 15
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 16
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 17
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Appraising Trump School Choice, Child-Care Plans
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Personal Lens: A Vp Nominee’s Spouse on Education
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Nevada High Court Deals Blow to School Choice Program
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 21
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 22
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 23
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 24
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 25
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Voices: Having the Difficult Race-Bias Conversation
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 29
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 30
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - 31
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - Kaya Henderson: 5 Lessons From an Outgoing Chancellor
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - October 5, 2016 - CT4
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