Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 9

as the number of sick and personal
days teachers are guaranteed) and
the likelihood that a teacher will be
chronically absent."
On average, typical public school
teachers receive about 12 days of sick
and personal leave per year, the report says. Griffith did not have numbers for the charter sector, "although
it seems unlikely that the policies are
as generous," he said.
In 34 of the 35 states with a sizeable charter sector (at least 10
brick-and-mortar schools), teachers
in traditional public schools were
more likely to be chronically absent
than teachers in charter schools, the
report says. The one exception was
Alaska.
In a statement, American Federation of Teachers President Randi Weingarten said, "Leave polices exist to
ensure kids can learn in a safe and
healthy environment. ... The reality
is that charter schools need better
leave policies, not worse ones, a fact
ignored by Fordham."
Griffith also looked at how unionized and nonunionized charter
schools differ.

Cultural or Contractual?
Of the 6,900 charter schools nationally, about 1 in 10 have teachers' unions. According to the report,
18 percent of teachers in unionized
charter schools are chronically absent. It's about half that in charter
schools without unions.
Teachers who work in charters
"agree to go there as an at-will employee in most cases," said Raegen T.

Miller, the research director at FutureEd, a think tank at Georgetown
University's public policy school,
who reviewed the paper for Fordham. "This means you're buying
into a school culture and a way of
doing business. That doesn't include
the elaborate leave policies you can
often find in a collective bargaining
agreement."
Aside from collective bargaining,
charters and district public schools
tend to differ in other ways as well:
Teachers at charters are younger
and less experienced than those at
traditional public schools on average, and they are paid less.
Kate Walsh, the president of the
National Council on Teacher Quality, a research and advocacy group
that has also studied teacher absences, said the most salient difference between the two types of
schools is not collective bargaining.
Charters are generally autonomous,
and not beholden to a larger bureaucracy-the teachers there may
have more trouble slipping under
the radar, Walsh argued.
"It's like comparing a small shop
to IBM," she said.
In his own prior research, Miller
has shown a link between teacher
absenteeism and student achievement: When teachers miss 10 days
of school, their students perform
worse in math and are less engaged
than their peers whose teachers
were absent less often.
Miller also pointed out that
teacher absenteeism rates tend to
differ greatly from school to school
within a district-and that varia-

tion in absences mainly seems to be
the product of differences in culture
between individual schools. Many
charters pride themselves on having a strong shared school culture.
Walsh agreed that school culture
plays a significant role. "Though
I'm certainly sympathetic to [Fordham's] conclusions because I do
think job protections contribute to
the absenteeism problem, our take
is it's much more complicated than
their report suggests," she said.
She pointed to big discrepancies in teacher absenteeism rates
between cities-for instance, the
report shows that more than 30
percent of traditional public school
teachers miss more than 10 days in
Chicago, while in San Francisco it's
10 percent. Teachers in both cities
collectively bargain.
"The difference is there's a cultural expectation you show up," she
said.
At least a couple of states-including Rhode Island and Virginia-are considering including
a measure of teacher absenteeism as part of their accountability
plans under the Every Student
Succeeds Act.
Coverage of policy efforts to improve
the teaching profession is supported by
a grant from the Joyce Foundation, at
www.joycefdn.org/Programs/Education.
Education Week retains sole editorial
control over the content of this coverage.
Visit the TEACHER BEAT blog, which
tracks news and trends on this issue.
www.edweek.org/blogs

TEACHER VS. STUDENT DEMOGRAPHICS
Analysts from the Center for American Progress found that in many states, the percentage of
teachers who are nonwhite is far smaller than the share of students who are nonwhite.
Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
New Jersey
Oregon
South Carolina
Texas
Washington

44%
38
75
46
43
53
60
51
30
21
60
36
34
30
52
36
48
71
43

21%
10
35
12
8
14
30
17
6
5
24
7
10
4
16
8

Share of nonwhite students
Share of nonwhite teachers

22
38
10

SOURCE: Center for American Progress, "Revisiting the Persistent Teacher Diversity Problem: Tables and Sources" (2017)

work of teachers and more directly
related to students than a standardized test score," Petchauer said.
It's important to remember, he said,
that many candidates of color might
have attended less-resourced schools
before college, which may put them at
a disadvantage for taking a standardized high-stakes exam.
That's why none of this work should

be done in isolation, said Sharif El-Mekki, the co-founder of The Fellowship:
Black Male Educators for Social Justice, a teacher-diversity initiative in
Philadelphia.
Teacher-preparation programs
should be aware of the barriers for
candidates, make sure they are offering sufficient support, and hold themselves accountable for doing so.

"It's not just saying, 'here's the bar,'
it's high expectations and high support," El-Mekki said.
Coverage of policy efforts to improve
the teaching profession is supported by
a grant from the Joyce Foundation, at
www.joycefdn.org/Programs/Education.
Education Week retains sole editorial
control over the content of this coverage.

Math, Reading Hurdles
Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Conference builds researcher connections
By Christina A. Samuels
Arlington, Va.

Are reading and math difficulties
two sides of the same coin?
Researchers are finding that
students with dyslexia -defined
as difficulty in reading accurately
and fluently-often also have trouble with math fluency. Reading
and math struggles often manifest
themselves in the same part of the
brain, and interventions that help
in one area, such as math fluency,
may also boost a student's word
skills.
A recent two-day National Science
Foundation-sponsored conference
here brought together experts in
brain research, learning disabilities,
and math and reading education to
talk about the connections in their
worlds.
Among the findings shared at the
conference: an unpublished study
of Finnish elementary students
found that 40 percent of the group
scoring below the 16th percentile
on a reading achievement test also
scored below the 16th percentile
on a math test. That study also
showed that it was particularly
difficult for interventions to make
a significant improvement in the
group of students who showed
struggles in both areas. A separate study of a group of American
elementary students also showed
that many students had overlapping reading and math difficulties.
Difficulties sometimes show up
well before children start school.
For example, research has shown
that children who struggle with vocabulary as toddlers are at risk of
developing math difficulties later.
But some interventions showed
success in tackling both challenges
at the same time. For example,
a study of elementary students
conducted by researchers from
Vanderbilt University showed that
children who spent 30 minutes in
a reading intervention and 15 minutes in a math intervention had
better results in reading than children who got the 30-minute reading
intervention alone.

Practical Challenges
The challenge is getting all these
interventions to schools. Several
presenters said that schools generally focus on reading interventions,
and helping students who also
struggle in math takes a back seat.
"When we say 'learning disabilities,' we are mostly talking about
reading," said Rose Vukovic, an
associate professor of educational
psychology at the University of
Minnesota. Vukovic, who has done
research on groups of elementaryage students with reading difficulties, showing that many of them had
problems with math as well.
"We have to pay attention to other
facets as well," she said. "We can't

do reading to the exclusion of everything else."
There also are challenges when it
comes to translating research-based
practices to schools, said Nicole
Bucka, the response-to-intervention
coordinator for the Cumberland district in Rhode Island.
For example, for middle schoolers, there was little time in the
school day to receive both a math
intervention and support on the
other goals outlined in their individualized education programs, she
said.
And, for older students, there
was no way to ignore behavior as
a component of the intervention,
Bucka said. Older students have
often had so much experience with

"

When we say
'learning disabilities,'
we are mostly talking
about reading.
We have to pay
attention to other
facets as well."
ROSE VUKOVIC
University of Minnesota

failure that teachers had to be
explicitly taught how to address
math anxiety and learned helplessness. Positive self-talk had to
be embedded in the interventions
as well, Bucka found.

Building Collaboration
The two-day event was born out
of the federal Research Excellence
and Advancement for Dyslexia, or
READ Act.
That act, passed in 2016, requires
that National Science Foundation
to make grants related to dyslexia
research, specifically in the area of
early identification, professional development, and curricula development. Science, technology, engineering and math is also a focus of the
READ Act.
But Jack Fletcher, a professor
of psychology at the University of
Houston and the principal investigator for the Texas Center for
Learning Disabilities, said during
his presentation that many schools
are still struggling to implement the
strong reading instruction that all
students need.
"It circles back to what's happening in the classroom," Fletcher said
after the conference. "If we don't
have strong core instruction in reading, math, and writing, we're starting at a deficit."

EDUCATION WEEK | October 4, 2017 | www.edweek.org | 9


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 4, 2017

Education Week - October 2, 2017
States Are Making It Easier To Transfer Teacher Licenses
Union Fees Again Reach High Court
Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Are Selectivity and Diversity Competing Goals for Teaching?
Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
K-12 Budget Woes Dog States As School Year Advances
DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Arts Education: A Look Ahead Researchers, professors, and practitioners make their case for the future of the discipline
Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Howard Gardner & Ellen Winner: We Still Have So Much More to Learn
Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 5
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 13
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 17
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 19
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 21
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 27
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW4
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