Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 21

Goals

Indicators

States outlined a wide range of goals and timelines
for improving achievement in their ESSA plans.
FIXED TARGETS: Some chose fixed goals that aim for
all students, and specific groups such as low-income
students, to reach the same target. Kansas, for example,
aims for 75 percent of all students (and in each
subgroup) to score proficient on state tests by 2029-30.
States in this category include: Arkansas, Hawaii, Ohio,
Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, Rhode island, South
Dakota, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
RELATIVE TARGETS: Other states picked relative goals,
which means that groups of students who are further
behind don't have to meet the same endpoint as those who
start further along. Pennsylvania, for example, expects all
students and each subgroup to reduce by half the percent
of students scoring below proficient on tests by 2029-30.
States with this type of goal also include: Alaska,
California, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland,
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Utah, and
Wisconsin.
RANGE OF TIMELINES: States also picked a wide range
of timelines for meeting their long-term goals. They
range from just five years, in Iowa, which expects
growth of one-half to 1 percentage points annually
for schools and subgroups, to timelines spanning
more than a decade. Georgia wants annual, 3 percent
improvements in proficiency rates over 15 years.

ESSA requires states to go beyond test scores and
graduation rates and to consider some measure of
"school quality or student success" in gauging school
performance. States have a lot of room to run here, but
the vast majority chose in their plans to incorporate
chronic absenteeism and/or college-and-career readiness
into their school rating systems. Experts say states
may have chosen these factors in part because they are
relatively easy to measure.
CHRONIC ABSENTEEISM: At least 33 states are looking
at chronic absenteeism or attendance in some form
to hold schools accountable under the new law. New
York, Pennsylvannia, and Virginia, for instance, will be
consdering chronic absenteeism. And some states chose
factors that are related to attendance. California, for
instance, is looking at suspensions and discipline
rates.
READINESS MEASURES: At least 35 states are
incorporating some kind of postsecondary-readiness
measure, whether that's ACT scores, SAT scores, dual
enrollment, Advanced Placement, career and technical
education pathways, a mix of those factors, or something
else. For instance, New York is looking at whether
students enroll and pass advanced courses, or earn
college credit through dual enrollment. And Georgia
is considering whether students earn credit through
AP or International Baccalaureate courses, or a CTE
certification.
-ALYSON KLEIN

School Ratings
ESSA requires states to use two ratings-schools
needing "comprehensive" and "targeted" support-for
schools falling short in certain areas. Aside from that,
the majority of states, at least 42 as well as the District
of Columbia, are giving schools some kind of overall
score. Some of the ratings overlap or refer to those mandated comprehensive and targeted labels.
DASHBOARDS AND SCORES: Six states (California, Idaho,
Oregon, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Virginia)
want to use a "dashboard" approach to accountability
that rates schools based on their performance on things
like academic achievement and chronic absenteeism,
but does not assign schools a final, summative score.
Some states want to use this dashboard approach by
displaying schools' marks on various indicators, but they
also want to assign schools a final grade. These states
include Arkansas, Kentucky, and New York.
POPULAR METHODS: Although giving schools grades
on an A-F basis has been a controversial policy in
states in recent years, it's the most popular option for
rating schools among states, with 14 planning to do so,
including Florida, Mississippi, and Texas. (Many states
already use A-F for accountability.) And 12 states plan to
use some sort of text or phrase to describe their schools
performance. States taking this approach include Iowa,
Nebraska, and Wyoming.
-ANDREW UJIFUSA

-STEPHEN SAWCHUK

For the most part, ESSA plans don't get into
exhaustive detail on how states will turn around their
lowest performing schools. That's partly because the
U.S. Department of Education isn't asking for a ton
of specifics in that area. The federal government
is more interested, at this point, in how states will
identify struggling schools. And that will take some
time. States won't start pinpointing schools for what
the law calls "comprehensive support" until after the
2017-18 school year.
What's more, ESSA places most of the responsibility
for fixing seriously struggling schools at the district
level. States are supposed to monitor districts'
turnaround plans and step in if a school isn't improving
after several years.
OPTIONS: States can, however, decide to take a more
active role in turnarounds, if they choose to. And it's
clear from the ESSA applications that some states
are already planning to do that. Massachusetts, for
instance, is sticking with its current system, which
allows the state to step in and take control of districts
that are in serious academic straits. And Arkansas may
help perennially struggling elementary schools improve
access to prekindergarten. West Virginia is creating
a network of "statistical neighbors" so that high- and
lower-performing schools with similar demographics
can learn from one another.
-ALYSON KLEIN

Teacher Quality
In their ESSA plans, states were asked to detail how
they would spend money under the law's teacher-quality
state grant program. (Most of the grant is passed along
to districts, but each state can reserve up to 8 percent of
its appropriation. )
States also had to set a definition for an "ineffective"
teacher. Florida will so identify teachers who get a final
rating of unsatisfactory on the state's teacher-evaluation
system, while California will identify teachers without
credentials.
ONGOING REFORMS: In their plans, states generally outlined ongoing reforms to certification, teacher preparation, and professional development rather than proposing brand-new initiatives.
* Kentucky will expand a New Teacher Institute
geared to help new career and technical education
teachers with extensive workplace experience settle into
teaching over a two-year period.
* Wisconsin plans to explore creating a state chapter of
Educators Rising, a nonprofit that tries to boost interest
in teaching careers among high school students.
* Rhode Island, although it isn't using its teacher-quality
funds for this purpose, will analyze where chronically
absent teachers-those who miss more than 10 percent
of the school year-are located, in addition to reviewing
equity data on the law's required categories of ineffective,
out-of-field, and inexperienced teachers.
-STEPHEN SAWCHUK

Opt-Out
The testing opt-out movement became highly
controversial in the last few years. ESSA requires that
students who opt out of mandatory exams without
permission be scored as nonproficient. However, the law
also allows states to have their own laws regarding test
participation. States are taking a variety of approaches
to address the issue.
KNOCKED DOWN A PEG: At least a dozen states plan to
directly reduce a school's overall score if the school does
not meet the threshold of testing 95 percent of eligible
students. These include Connecticut, Ohio, and Rhode
Island.
Within this group, states are taking various
approaches. New Mexico wants to reduce the score of a
school by one letter grade on its A-F rating system if it
misses the 95 percent participation threshold.
HOT SPOTS: In at least a few states where opt-out
has been relatively popular, states don't propose the
same kind of penalties. In Colorado, schools missing
the 95 percent participation threshold would have
to develop a plan to address it and distribute
information about the tests to the public. But the
state's ESSA proposal doesn't outline any stronger
penalty for those schools.
-ANDREW UJIFUSA

ESSA RESOURCE: "ESSA Plans: Explainer and Key Takeaways From Each State" www.edweek.org/go/essa-plans
EDUCATION WEEK | October 4, 2017 | www.edweek.org | 21

Images by Getty and Edcuation Week

School Improvement


http://www.edweek.org/go/essa-plans http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 4, 2017

Education Week - October 2, 2017
States Are Making It Easier To Transfer Teacher Licenses
Union Fees Again Reach High Court
Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Are Selectivity and Diversity Competing Goals for Teaching?
Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
K-12 Budget Woes Dog States As School Year Advances
DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Arts Education: A Look Ahead Researchers, professors, and practitioners make their case for the future of the discipline
Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Howard Gardner & Ellen Winner: We Still Have So Much More to Learn
Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 5
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 13
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 17
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 19
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 21
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 27
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW4
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