Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 11

DIGITAL DIRECTIONS > TRACKING NEWS AND IDEAS IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
www.digitaldirections.org

From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
RAND researchers
note the difficulties
By Benjamin Herold
Personalized learning is hard.
For the ed-tech community, that,
again, is the takeaway from new research by the RAND Corporation.
This time, the findings come from
an early-stage evaluation of "Opportunity by Design" high schools,
which are funded and supported by
the Carnegie Corporation of New
York.
The schools share 10 common
"design principles," including a
heavy emphasis on personalization
(defined as tailoring student experiences to meet individuals' needs
and interests) and mastery-based
learning (defined as expecting
students to demonstrate deep understanding of rigorous standards
before advancing).
The schools faced numerous hurdles in turning those ideals into
classroom realities, said Laura S.
Hamilton, an associate director of
RAND Education and one of the
study's authors. "There are a lot of
challenges to doing this work well,"
she said, including "a lot that's
not currently under the control of
schools."
The RAND team did find positive
signs. The schools it studied had
clear missions. Teachers and students alike reported an emphasis
on key features of mastery-based
and personalized learning, such
as providing opportunities for students to work with particular material until they fully understood
it. There were also examples of
creative use of data to customize
instruction.

Early Obstacles
But the report, "Designing Innovative High Schools: Implementation of the Opportunity by Design
Initiative After Two Years," offers
a detailed account of the early obstacles the schools have faced.
Chief among them:
* Lack of time for teachers to create or find lessons and learning
materials that are differentiated
for each student.
* External pressure to move students towards graduation, whether
they had mastered the material
or not.
* Inconsistent expectations for
what "mastery" means.
* Inconsistent access to highquality data about what students
know and can do.
* Lack of quality online learning
materials.
Such challenges broadly mirror
the barriers faced by other personalized-learning efforts, including a
separate cohort of Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation-funded schools
that RAND is also evaluating.
"These results are very preliminary, but they do provide a
valuable assessment of what is

going on at the classroom level,
including daily challenges and
possible solutions," said JoEllen
Lynch, the executive director of
Springpoint Partners in School
Design, an independent nonprofit that is providing technical assistance to the Opportunity by Design Schools. "This
will inform our work, and,
we hope, provide lessons for
the field as more and more
schools employ these types of
approaches."

Shared Design Principles
The Carnegie Corporation
launched the Opportunity by
Design initiative in 2013. (The
Carnegie Corporation provides
some support for coverage of
school innovation issues in Education Week.) The goal is to spur
development of innovative high
school models in high-poverty
areas.
Participating schools are expected to embrace a wide range of
1.
shared design principles, ranging
Personalization
from having a clear mission to
and mastery-based
adopting a mindset of "continulearning were seen as key
ous improvement."
The new RAND evaluation foelements of efforts to design
cuses on 10 Opportunity by Deinnovative high school
sign schools that opened during
models for highthe 2014-15 and 2015-16 school
poverty areas.
years. Findings come from classroom observations; interviews
and focus groups with dozens of
2.
principals, teachers, and stuMost students and
dents; and surveys of more
teachers in the 10 schools
than 1,000 students.
being studied said new
The focus is on three
practices, such as adapting
"power principles" emphacourse content to meet
sized within the Opportunity by Design framework:
individual students' needs,
mastery-based learning,
were taking root.
personalization, and positive
youth development.
3.
The first of those two are likely
Teachers said lack of
to be of especially high intertime to create customized
est to the education-technollessons was a major
ogy sector. Backed by major
barrier to personalizing
philanthropists and investors
learning.
such as Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg, the ed-tech industry has
aggressively pushed the idea of
4.
"personalized learning." But on
Even schools with an
the ground, the concept reexplicit focus on masterymains nebulous, and research
based learning struggled
evidence remains thin.
In July, for example, RAND
to clearly define the term
released the latest findings
and consistently apply
from its ongoing evaluation of
common standards of
40 personalized-learning schools
mastery.
that have received funding via an
initiative called Next Generation
Learning Challenges.
5.
Those schools showed modest
Educators felt caught
gains in math and reading scores.
between a desire to let each
But the researchers also found a
student progress at his or her
wide variety of management and
own pace and external pressures
instructional practices, as well as a
to move all students through
host of barriers to personalization.
a common curriculum and
Many of those same challenges
toward graduation.
also showed up in the Opportunity
by Design schools.
For example, almost two-thirds
of teachers said lack of time was
SOURCE: RAND Corporation
an obstacle to creating learning
materials that were tailored to
each student.

5 KEY
FINDINGS ABOUT
PERSONALIZED
LEARNING

Teachers and principals also
consistently reported feeling
pressure to move students
along through the curriculum and toward graduation,
whether or not they had actually mastered the material
they were learning.
And some teachers described
difficulties with getting students to attend school, complete
their work, and turn assignments in on time.
To g e t h e r, s u c h f a c t o r s i n
some cases contributed to an
over-reliance on software and
online curricula-despite a
widespread worry that the digital
tools available weren't providing
solid learning experiences for
students.
"Although many teachers we
interviewed were concerned
that the online curricula in their
schools were of low quality, utilizing [such curricula] seems to be
the only approach thus far that allowed students to truly progress ...
at their own pace," the report says.
Other details from the new
RAND report shed new light on
the challenges associated with
personalized- and mastery-based
learning.
In some cases, the very notion of
"mastery" itself proved problematic.
Educators, for example, said
they often struggled to find effective ways to regularly assess
whether students had actually
learned content, sometimes
turning to standard worksheets
and short quizzes for lack of better
options.
Standards for what counted as
"mastery" varied from school to
school, and sometimes from student to student.
And the children in the Opportunity by Design schools weren't
always receptive to teachers' attempts to explain why "demonstrating mastery" was the new
coin of the realm.
"Students often became
upset when they perceived that
they were given more, or different, work than others," the report
reads.

Furthermore, giving students the
opportunity to choose what topics
they pursued and instructional
materials they used in class was
not a regular point of emphasis.
It was often difficult for teachers
to find high-quality curricula that
were differentiated to students'
varying ability levels.
And the use of technology tools
within the Opportunity by Design
schools was "all over the place,"
Hamilton said.
"There's a pretty steep learning
curve when you're adjusting your
practice to teach in a more innovative, tech-based environment," she
said. "We need to be thinking about
whether teachers have the training, support, and time they need to
implement these models and use
these tools."

Encouraging Signs
Despite all the obstacles, the
RAND team also saw reason for
optimism.
Most teachers and students said
that the new models were taking
root, and 89 percent of teachers
reported moderate-to-heavy emphasis on using a wide variety of
materials and approaches to better
accommodate students' individual
needs.
And those Opportunity by Design
schools that opened in the second
year of the initiative also seemed
to face fewer challenges than the
first cohort of schools, with teachers saying they felt better prepared
and faced fewer obstacles.
"The RAND report validates
the complexities and importance
of building capacity when moving to personalized, masterybased learning that we see in other
districts and schools trying to
move in this direction," said Ann
Wolf, the director of digital learning programs for the Friday Institute, a research center at North
Carolina State University. "The
early findings show ... the work
thus far [is] beginning to make
a difference for what teaching
and learning can be in these
schools."

EDUCATION WEEK | October 4, 2017 | www.edweek.org | 11


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - October 4, 2017

Education Week - October 2, 2017
States Are Making It Easier To Transfer Teacher Licenses
Union Fees Again Reach High Court
Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Are Selectivity and Diversity Competing Goals for Teaching?
Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
K-12 Budget Woes Dog States As School Year Advances
DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Arts Education: A Look Ahead Researchers, professors, and practitioners make their case for the future of the discipline
Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Howard Gardner & Ellen Winner: We Still Have So Much More to Learn
Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Education Advisers Say White House Has Ignored Them
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 5
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Independent Charters Aim to Elevate Their Status
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - In Devastated Puerto Rico, Reopening of Schools Is Far Off
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Teachers Found to Miss More Work In Regular Schools Than in Charters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Math, Reading Hurdles Drawing Joint Scrutiny
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Growing Numbers of States Embrace Career Education
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: From Theory to Practice, Hurdles for Personalized Learning
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - New SAT Results Hard to Gauge
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 13
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Expounds on Policy In One-on-One Interview
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - DeVos Gives Schools Options On Handling of Sexual Assault
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Watch List: High Court, 2017-18 Term
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 17
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Scenes From DeVos’ ‘Rethink School’ Tour
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 19
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - State ESSA Plans: One-Stop Guide
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 21
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Susan Riley: The ‘A’ in STEAM Completes the Puzzle
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Jay P. Greene: Arts Integration Is a Sucker’s Game
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Emily Gasoi & Sonya Robbins Hoffmann: For the Future, Arts Assessment Is Indispensable
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - 27
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - Mariale Hardiman: Asking the Right Questions for a Creative Future
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - October 4, 2017 - CW4
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