Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 8

quickly. You can't do that with a classroom teacher."
Yet across the board, researchers developing the programs argue that teachers are critical to making the
systems work effectively. "These intelligent-tutoring
systems, people always worry they are going to replace
teachers," said Art Graesser of the University of Memphis, who developed the AutoTutor and ALEKS systems.
"I would argue they don't, but they take over a lot of
tasks teachers don't like to do: to grade papers, to cover
the same skills over and over. ... In ideal systems, teachers
will be creating the material, working with students on
broader life goals."
Yet Graesser, Koedinger, and others all agree that teachers need more specific professional development in how to
integrate intelligent systems into their classrooms.
"Teachers can say, 'Oh, the tutor teaches X, I teach Y.'
That does not work," Dede said. "It's actually a very rich
kind of sharing of responsibility between the teacher and
the machine. The people who build the intelligent-tutoring
systems often don't understand this very well and don't
provide support to teachers to implement them."
Chalapathy Neti, the vice president of IBM's Watson initiative, agreed. The Watson intelligent system has already
been used to help accountants at H&R Block unravel tax law
and to help oncologists at the Mayo Clinic diagnose cancers,
but the system is just being launched this year in higher education and preschool. Neti said the group is piloting cautiously, while keeping teachers in the development process.
"The time a doctor has with a patient is very episodic
and sporadic, but a teacher is with the student every day.
We need to lay a foundation for the learner," Neti said.
"We don't think of 'AI' as artificial intelligence, we think
of it as 'augmented intelligence,' and we are thinking of
how we improve this partnership" between teachers and
computers.

HAZELWOOD EAST HIGH SCHOOL IN ST. LOUIS IS A CASE
in point: When it started using Graesser's ALEKS intelligenttutoring system, teachers were making a virtue of necessity.
A majority of the 1,300 students there are poor and
black, and the school was among the lowest performing

TRADITIONAL COMPUTER PROGRAMS

Information structures, such as concept maps and
1-on-1 tutoring strategies

Student responds to specific computer prompts

Student or computer can ask a question to open a
dialogue, pose problems, or provide explanations

Uses a limited script of questions and responses
System is set

|

'INTELLIGENT' SYSTEMS

Preprogrammed lessons or exercises

Adapts questions based on student's performance
on prior questions or on an achievement benchmark

8

in the state in 2010. It used a federal school improvement
grant to join a pilot program to use the ALEKS tutoring
system for Algebra 1, a subject in which only 6.5 percent of
its students were considered proficient.
The school identified incoming freshmen who had
previously performed poorly in math and required them
to take a double block of algebra: One 90-minute section included traditional lecturing, while the other was a
90-minute lab with ALEKS that teachers facilitated.
"You cannot simply hand ALEKS over to your teachers and say, 'Here's a great intervention, run with this,' "
said Michael Peoples, then a math instructional coach at
Hazelwood. "No. You need a very clear plan and you need
to involve teachers in your plan."
It took nearly three years for teachers to really integrate
the tutoring system into their instruction, Peoples said,
in part because the school's low performance came with
tight scrutiny and high teacher turnover. Hazelwood provided collaboration time for teachers, as well as a series
of training sessions-first on just the technical aspects of
how to use the system and later on how to monitor students' progression and use the results to plan instruction.
As the teachers adjusted to the new system, the
school's algebra-proficiency rate climbed steadily, from
6.5 percent in 2010 to 44.8 percent scoring at "proficient"
or "advanced" by 2015-even as the statewide algebraproficiency rate dipped slightly. Last year, the district
launched a 1-to-1 tablet initiative and integrated ALEKS
into all algebra classes, not just remedial ones.
"Our school at the time was under a microscope," said
Peoples, who is now the school's assistant principal, so
implementing the intervention "was not presented as an
option." As teachers learned more about the system, he
said, "it has birthed a movement toward more cooperative learning. ... We began to push more for activities that
required students to engage in discourse.
"You began to hear students taking the lead more in class,
presenting more, critiquing each others' work and students
defending their own work, and talking through their thinking more," Peoples said. "Ultimately, there was a movement from teachers as lecturers to more of facilitators." n

Education Week * September 27, 2017

Incorporates prior student data from inside or outside
the system, as well as measures of engagement
(keystroke speed, frequency of help requests, etc.)
May use natural language or demonstrations
System changes as more students use it



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 27, 2017

Education Week - September 27, 2017
Contents
Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Facing an Uncertain Future
‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Fastest-Growing Occupations
Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Learning How to Learn
10 Ways to Learn
Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
There Will Be Jobs
We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Education Week - September 27, 2017
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C2
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Contents
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Facing an Uncertain Future
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 4
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 5
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 6
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - ‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 8
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Fastest-Growing Occupations
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 11
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 14
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 15
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Learning How to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 10 Ways to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 18
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 20
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - There Will Be Jobs
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 23
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 24
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C3
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C4
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
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