Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 7

'Intelligent'
Tutors: Will
They Change
Teaching?
Teachers' jobs a�en't going away,
but they could be diffe�ent
SCHOOLS MAY BE CRITIQUED AS "FACTORIES," BUT
robots aren't going to replace human teachers any time
soon. Still, that doesn't mean that artificially intelligent systems won't transform education just as they are
changing a variety of fields and practices, from the way
oncologists diagnose cancer to how lawyers analyze cases.
Intelligent-tutoring systems like
ALEKS (for Assessment and LEarning
in Knowledge Spaces), Cognitive Tutor,
By SARAH
and a new program in development by
IBM's Watson initiative are starting to
expand in K-12 education, and experts
argue that teachers need new training
not only to use intelligent systems in
the classroom but also to prepare students for careers in
increasingly technology-integrated fields.
"Any skill that a computer can teach is going to be done
by a computer in the workplace, and that's something
people don't think about enough," said Christopher Dede,
an education and technology professor at the Harvard
Graduate School of Education. For that reason, he said,
teachers can use computer programs not simply to replace pieces of their instruction, but to model for students how to work with technology professionally. "It
changes the skills people need to be employed. AI changes
teaching, yes, but more important than that, AI changes
the goals and purposes of teaching," Dede said.
Artificially intelligent tutoring systems, or ITS, are computer programs that model students' psychological states
as well as their prior knowledge to personalize instruction
for them. As students interact with them, the programs
collect data about how the students approach each problem, when they are likely to get frustrated, and so on. The
system evolves in response to the people who use it, to
improve the lessons and assessments it presents.

"In the tutorial, you have a conversation, and the tutormachine knows an awful lot about your background in
the course and can build on that in a way you can't in a
regular classroom," said J.D. Fletcher, a researcher with
the Institute of Defense Analyses and a primary developer
of the U.S. Navy's Digital Tutor ITS, which is used to train
Navy staff for technical jobs in the force, such as troubleshooting systems on a ship. "Some of your kids will take
one day what it takes others four days to learn. In a traditional classroom, the fast students are left twiddling their
thumbs. ... If you have [an ITS] engaging in a conversation
with you, the tutor can just keep piling
on the questions to you that are progressively more difficult."
D. SPARKS
Such tutoring systems have had mixed
effectiveness over the years, but more
recent programs have shown significant
promise. A 2014 meta-analysis of several
different ITS found they were as effective
in helping students learn as a person leading one-onone or small-group instruction and more effective than
full-sized teacher-led classes, workbooks or textbooks,
or traditional computer-based instruction.

In STEM AutoTutor,
an artificially intelligent
computer program for teaching
middle school math and
science, virtual characters
help students think through
their goals and the different
approaches they might try
to solve a problem as well as
the procedures they need
to know.

A SEPARATE EVALUATION OF THE NAVY'S INTELLIGENTtutoring system found those who used it outperformed
those using standard technical training-not just on
other tests, but also on practical troubleshooting exercises. Navy staff who had been trained using the tutoring program also attempted more challenging problems
and tasks than students who had been trained in other
ways.
"Whether the [ITS] is like a human or not doesn't
matter if it works better in some ways," said Kenneth
Koedinger, a professor of human-computer interaction and psychology at Carnegie Mellon University, who
helped develop another artificial-intelligence teaching
program, Cognitive Tutor. "In a system that big, you can
replicate a strategy in a reliable way and try it against
a separate strategy and see what works better, very

Schools & the Future of Work / www.edweek.org/go/futureofwork

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7


http://www.edweek.org/go/futureofwork

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 27, 2017

Education Week - September 27, 2017
Contents
Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Facing an Uncertain Future
‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Fastest-Growing Occupations
Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Learning How to Learn
10 Ways to Learn
Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
There Will Be Jobs
We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Education Week - September 27, 2017
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C2
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Contents
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Facing an Uncertain Future
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 4
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 5
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 6
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - ‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 8
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Fastest-Growing Occupations
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 11
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 14
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 15
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Learning How to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 10 Ways to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 18
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 20
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - There Will Be Jobs
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 23
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 24
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C3
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com