Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 18

''

The job titles may not exist yet, but in 2020 ...
the cognitive processes that go into those jobs are probably
not that different than what we are looking at today."
DANIEL WILLINGHAM, cognitive scientist and professor of psychology at the University of Virginia

components about structuring time and learning to be
disciplined to learn new things, which have tended to fall
through the cracks in the debate.
In general, the idea of thinking about and regulating
one's learning falls under the heading of metacognition,
and many of the learning techniques the scientists are
looking at are fundamentally pretty simple.
Quizzing one's own grasp of Spanish vocabulary using
flashcards embodies the technique called practice testing,
or devising tests and drills to help learn material.
Using the Cornell method to take notes-generally
defined as dividing the paper into columns and putting
notes on one side and key words and questions to answer
later on the other-illustrates another learning technique, self-explanation, which involves connecting new
and prior information together. Explaining each of the
steps taken to solve a mathematics problem is another
representative example.
And practicing musical scales on the piano on Mondays, drilling finger work on Wednesdays, and committing recital pieces to memory on Fridays would fall under
the heading of "interleaved practice"-learning how to
effectively spread out various different components of
study over time.

IN A 2013 PAPER, DUNLOSKY AND FOUR OTHER COGNITIVE
scientists summarized those three techniques and seven
others, evaluating the existing empirical research found
about their effectiveness. Some, like highlighting texts,
aren't particularly useful but are an entry to thinking in
a more structured way about learning. Others, like practice testing, seem to be quite effective under a range of
conditions.
The catch, researchers say, is that many of those
learning techniques aren't routinely emphasized in K-12
schools. They do appear to be more common among literacy and English/language arts teachers, who might,
for instance, work with students on how to deploy reading-comprehension strategies. But perhaps the best
evidence that they're not widespread comes from the
plethora of nonprofit and for-profit organizations, some
charging costly fees, that aim to teach students "study
skills."
Teachers, meanwhile, tend to build students' knowledge and skills without calling attention to the learning
process. For example, a teacher who leads a lesson on
multiplication and then prepares matching worksheets
for students to complete is engaging them in a cognitive
exercise, but without the meta part.
"A lot of the skills involved in regulating your own
learning are taken over by the teacher," Dunlosky said.
"In K-12, you don't really manage your time. It's all done
for you."
That's where Meadows, of Southern Baptist Univer-

18

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Education Week * September 27, 2017

sity, comes in. She helps coordinate a mandatory twosemester course sequence in which college freshman
learn how to be in control of their own learning. The
course begins with the basics, by having students put
all their assignments in a calendar and set timelines and
milestones for completing them, and grows more sophisticated over time as students learn how to evaluate
arguments, conduct research, and study independently.

THE STUDY OF METACOGNITION IS STILL FAIRLY YOUNG,
dating from the 1970s, and less research has been conducted on workplace metacognition than in formal education. So it's difficult to know whether the study techniques that are learned and used in an academic setting
will transfer to the workplace. But for Meadows, the connections are clear.
"We talk about how degrees relate to jobs these days,
and how a degree is not a guarantee of a job anymore,"
she said of her students. "I ask them, 'What's going to
put you at the top of the stack?' And then they begin to
talk about things they've never connected with education:
work ethic, working well with others. In essence, you are
learning to be a particular way in the world-a questionasker, how to manage yourself, and how to be a solid decisionmaker."
That doesn't mean that students are necessarily receptive. One problem, Dunlosky said, is that students
mistakenly think they know how to study when they
really don't. They may think that merely rereading a
chapter or two will suffice. (Rereading is not one of the
more effective learning techniques Dunlosky and his
team studied.)
More colleges should consider granting credit to students who agree to practice and use some of these techniques in an introductory course and see how well they
work, he suggests.
And some warn that there's a ceiling, too, to what
training in the techniques can accomplish. No amount
of metacognition will help someone to become an accounting whiz if he or she doesn't have the mathematical
preparation, the experts point out.
"A little bit of modeling and practice is doubtless going
to be helpful, but there's an upper limit," said Daniel
Willingham, a cognitive scientist and professor of psychology at the University of Virginia. "The job titles may
not exist yet, but in 2020, people are still going to need
to do mathematics, to be able to read. The cognitive processes that go into those jobs are probably not that different than what we are looking at today."
To be sure, no one knows precisely the recipe for producing the most prepared, adaptable workforce. But at
the very least, to learn how to learn is a gift. And it may
just be one of the puzzle pieces to navigating an uncertain
future. n



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 27, 2017

Education Week - September 27, 2017
Contents
Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Facing an Uncertain Future
‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Fastest-Growing Occupations
Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Learning How to Learn
10 Ways to Learn
Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
There Will Be Jobs
We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Education Week - September 27, 2017
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C2
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Contents
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Taking a Long Look At Schools and Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Facing an Uncertain Future
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 4
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 5
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 6
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - ‘Intelligent’ Tutors: Will They Change Teaching?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 8
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Fastest-Growing Occupations
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Are Our Jobs Making Us Less Literate?
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 11
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Emma Yang, Problem Solver
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Colorado Goes All In on Apprentices
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 14
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 15
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Learning How to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 10 Ways to Learn
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 18
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - Rewarding Fine-Tuned Skills
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 20
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - There Will Be Jobs
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - We Will Redefine Work
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 23
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - 24
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C3
Education Week - September 27, 2017 - C4
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