Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 12

| BUILDING A TRAUMA-SENSITIVE SCHOOL
Veronica Lyon, a math
teacher at Lincoln
Middle School in
Clarkston, Wash.,
comforts one of her 7th
graders after a lesson in
fractions. Lyon
interweaves
social-emotional lessons
and mathematics to
support distressed

Pete Caster for Education Week

Getty

students.

Recognizing
Signs of Teacher
Burnout
The Professional Quality of
Life Scale, by researcher Beth
Hudnall Stamm, is a common
tool to gauge burnout and
compassion fatigue among
teachers. It asks educators and
other people in "helping" jobs
to reflect on how frequently
they experienced the different
reactions in the last 30 days
(on a scale of 1 to 5, meaning
"never" to "very often") and
includes several questions
related to the ways in which
working with students who
have experienced trauma can
affect teachers. The test asks
teachers to consider, among
other items, whether:
* I am preoccupied with
more than one person
I teach.
* I jump or am startled
by unexpected sounds.
* I find it difficult to separate
my personal life from my
life as a teacher.
* I am not as productive at
work because I am losing
sleep over the traumatic
experiences of a person
I teach.
* I feel depressed because
of the traumatic
experiences of the people
I teach.
* I feel as though I am
experiencing the trauma
of someone I have taught.
* I feel worn out because
of my work as a teacher.
* I avoid certain activities or
situations because they
remind me of frightening
experiences of the people
I taught.
* I can't recall important parts
of my work with trauma
victims.
For the full test and scoring, see

https://proqol.org/
ProQol_Test.html.

Fending Off 'Compassion Fatigue' Among Teachers
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

timate the support teachers themselves need to
cope with the emotional weight of helping students in distress.
"Teachers are so good at caring about others, who
is thought of last? Themselves," said Mona Johnson,
the director of student support for Washington's
state education agency, who helps train district staff
implementing trauma-sensitive education.
"Our first thought is to focus on what do the
kids need-and that is critically important-but
often we don't even think about what we need to
do to support the teachers" in how to set personal
boundaries and monitor their own stress levels,
Johnson said.
Just like paramedics or therapists, teachers are
often the first responders for children coping with
horrible experiences, including poverty, homelessness, abuse, or the death of a parent. An Education
Week Research Center survey this summer found
43 percent of teachers polled said they had difficulty "finding ways to help students who appear
to be struggling with problems outside of school,"
and nearly 1 in 4 teachers considered "finding
ways to help students who appear to be experiencing emotional or psychological distress" the most
challenging task in their work.
"You have to be prepared for what you are going
to hear from these students," said Allison Culver,
a special education teacher at Bethlehem Elementary School in New Hampshire, who works with
students with a history of trauma. "You need to
be able to hear something awful and not react in a
way that further traumatizes the student."
And the long-term effects of post-traumatic
stress on a student can show up in ways that add a
lot more to their teacher's plate.
"The behaviors we see in students escalate,
whether it's just apathy ... or the outward behaviors of talking back or the constant barrage of not
doing what they're supposed to do and being disrespectful. That's very frustrating for a teacher,"
said Heather Lang, who has led student support
services in the Clarkston district since it launched
districtwide trauma-sensitive schooling in 2013.
"And when it's daily and you have a class [of] anywhere from 24 to 35 kids, ... it's extremely taxing.
We were seeing that stress on our teachers."
In the mental health world, this is called "compassion fatigue"-and Johnson noted that anyone

12 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 18, 2019 | www.edweek.org

working with children is at a higher than average
risk for it. Strong empathy for others, less sense of
one's own feelings and needs, or personal trauma
can all leave a teacher more vulnerable to this
"weariness that comes with caring." Among educators, those who are new or who work with many
high-need students are especially susceptible.
Teachers who are developing secondary stress
may feel mentally or physically exhausted, ill, impatient, irritable, or even burnt out and apathetic.
"A lot of that you can see in body language, you
can see if they get emotional, angry, if they're
starting to send students out [to the principal's office] a little more often than they normally would,"
said Lang, who became an assistant principal at
Clarkston High School this year. "Those are signs
that the teachers are getting a little stressed and
need a breather and need some support."

"

I get burnt out pretty easily
because, you know, the
more you're around people,
the more they tap you out."
VERONICA LYON
Middle school math teacher, Clarkston, Wash.

If teachers don't get that support, this can create a vicious cycle. Studies find stress and burnout among teachers linked to physical markers of
stress in students, which in turn, make them more
likely to act out.
A 2016 study of 400 elementary schools found
teachers who reported higher levels of burnout
had students with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol each morning, suggesting classroom tensions could be "contagious." A separate
study found that the more emotionally drained
teachers became during a school year, the more
disruptive their students grew.
At Lee Hill Elementary in Spotsylvania, Va.,
staff members say they are helping each other "put
on their oxygen masks."

The Title I school has students with a history of
trauma "in every class," said Aimee Cox-Gibbs,
a social worker on Lee Hill's trauma planning
team. "Teachers are definitely on the front lines. ...
Teaching when you have so many complex needs in
your classroom is definitely a struggle every day."
The school started training educators to implement trauma-sensitive schooling two years ago,
and it made a point to pair new policies to support
students with those to support their teachers.
Teachers dedicate 30 minutes a day to building
relationships with students through social-emotional activities, but part of each month's staff
meeting is for lessons in self-care and wellness for
educators. Teachers teamed up for after-school
yoga last year, echoing the poses and breathing
exercises taught to students during the school day.
The school expanded from one counselor to two
and added a full-time social worker to support students with trauma-related needs. But Cox-Gibbs
said teachers also get classroom management
coaching to help divert students who are melting down without having to send them out of the
room.
And just as every classroom has a quiet corner
for students to retreat for a few minutes to avoid
a meltdown, teachers have their own version of a
time out. Those feeling particularly stressed can
tag out to another staff member or administrator.
"We will go in and we'll stay with the class for
five or 10 minutes, so that the teacher can just
take a step out and, you know, calm down," CoxGibbs said.
Likewise, Washington's Clarkston district realized a few years after it launched trauma-sensitive
schooling that it needed more teacher-focused
training and support. It added professional development on trauma-sensitive classroom-management strategies, and introduced monthly "wellness activities" like yoga, socials, and workshops
from mental-health professionals who talk about
ways for teachers to monitor and relieve their own
stress. The district pays for counseling for staff
members who need it.
Sometimes rethinking the structure of classes
can help, too. Lyon pointed to the class she developed, which involves teaching both social-emotional skills and math. But its original structure
wore her down.
"These are kids that have been identified that
their social-emotional issues have really im-


https://www.proqol.org/ProQol_Test.html https://www.proqol.org/ProQol_Test.html http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - September 18, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 18, 2019

Education Week - September 18, 2019
How Caring for Students Can Take a Steep Toll
Teachers on Front Lines of Making Schools Safe for Transgender Kids
Could Testing Wreck Civics Education?
Wanted: Teachers as Diverse As Their Students
Briefly Stated
Digital Tools Are Everywhere, But Evidence of Impact Is Not
What the Research Says
Talking Politics at School ‘When the World Is on Fire’
Presidential Candidates Argue Charters, Equity
The Perils of Equity-Focused Leadership
Special and General Education Should Be One Nimble System
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Wanted: Teachers as Diverse As Their Students
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 2
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 4
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Digital Tools Are Everywhere, But Evidence of Impact Is Not
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Talking Politics at School ‘When the World Is on Fire’
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Presidential Candidates Argue Charters, Equity
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 8
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 9
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 10
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 11
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 12
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 13
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 14
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 15
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - The Perils of Equity-Focused Leadership
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Special and General Education Should Be One Nimble System
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 20
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com