Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 10

| CITIZEN Z

Can Tests Capture the Best Qualities of Civics Education?

"

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

[The citizenship
tests] don't tell us if
young people know
how to mobilize
their communities
to get resources
or pass laws they
care about."
JESSICA MARSHALL
Former social studies director,
Chicago schools

Getty

ment, and how does today's national
government uphold the principles of
freedom and self-governance?
The question of how to assess civics learning is cropping up in conversations now as civics instruction
undergoes a renaissance in schools
across the country. Schools are reinventing the subject as a force that
goes far beyond teaching the nuts and
bolts of government. They're aiming
to forge young people into politically
active adults with a strong sense of
their power to bring about change for
the common good, and give them the
know-how to make it happen.
As schools move toward that vision, they realize they'll need some
type of assessment to figure out
whether this new kind of instruction
is working. The problem is the standardized kind that dominates the
landscape doesn't work well when
schools want to measure whether
students have embraced civic behaviors like volunteering or voting, or adopted civic attitudes and values such
as a sense of public duty.
Leaders in the new-civics movement are nervous. If states pledge allegiance to large-scale standardized
tests as a measure of civics learning,
will they kill off its best qualities?
Will those tests do to civics what No
Child Left Behind-mandated tests
did to English/language arts and
math: narrow the curriculum down
to ideas that can be captured by filling in a bubble sheet?
"It's a very big challenge, and
there's no real answer yet," said Louise Dubé, the executive director of
iCivics, a group that creates online
civics resources and hosted a convening of experts to discuss civics

assessment last January. "No one's
really cracked that nut."
As of now, civics educators' nutcracking efforts have produced a
curious, two-layered reality: At the
state level, it's become popular to
require students to pass the same
standardized, 10-question test that
immigrants take to win citizenship.
Closer to the ground, teachers, districts, and researchers are quietly
insisting on redefining what "assessment" means. It's not data gathered
from long rows of students bent over
test sheets. It's nuanced feedback
drawn from complex student projects, using methods like surveys,
grading rubrics, and performance
tasks.

In their rush to prioritize civics
education, many states have taken
the fast road to testing: They require
students to pass the U.S. citizenship
test. More than a dozen states require this test, use questions from it,
or have added to it to create customized civics exams, according to the
Civics Education Initiative, which
spearheaded a campaign to support
the test's use.

What to Measure
But using the citizenship test as a
proxy for civics mastery gets a torrent of criticism from leaders who
favor the new, broader conception
of civics education. They argue that

having to name the two chambers of
Congress, or the ocean on the West
Coast-two of the 100 questions that
can appear on the 10-question test-
doesn't come close to covering what
students really need to be prepared
for civic life as adults.
"They don't tell us if young people
know how to mobilize their communities to get resources or pass laws
they care about," said Jessica Marshall, who oversaw social studies in
Chicago, and is now pursuing her
doctoral degree.
But the backers of the citizenshiptest initiative say critics have distorted their idea. They don't advocate
using it as a substitute for comprehensive immersion in civics study.

Evaluating Hard-to-Measure Skills
Innovative models of assessment are giving educators ideas and
hope as they figure out how to gauge hard-to-measure skills in
civics, such as leadership or empathy.
Carlos Hipolito-Delgado, an associate professor of counseling at
the University of Colorado, has worked with colleagues to create
an evaluation protocol called MYPA, Measures of Youth Policy
Arguments.
It started out as a way to get students prepared for presentations on
action-civics projects. But it's morphed into a formative and summative
tool: Teachers in Denver are using it to guide and support students'
projects and to score them once they're presented, Hipolito-Delgado said.
Because the evaluation lends itself to the doing of civics, not just
the learning of it, Hipolito-Delgado views it as a tool to infuse civics
learning with an ingredient that's too often missing: students'
own voices and experiences. An assessment like that, he said, is
"revolutionary."
Civics educators are also pinning some hope on technological
innovations that will make it easier to assess hard-to-measure
attitudes and dispositions.

10 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 18, 2019 | www.edweek.org

High Resolves is an Australian technology company that builds
digital platforms that immerse students in civics simulations.
One of its signature exercises is a global negotiation, in which
students play ambassadors who are working to reduce carbon
emissions. As each round of negotiations unfolds in the classroom,
students enter their decisions into devices, creating patterns of
decisionmaking.
CEO and co-founder Mehrdad Baghai said he and his colleagues
are working to mine that digital information and pinpoint the
"subconstructs"-pieces-of behaviors, like leadership, or personal
qualities, like empathy, that students exhibit during the role play.
Educators could then use that "sandpit" of data tidbits-in
combination with student questionnaires and follow-up work-to "get
a read on" the qualities they're interested in, he said.
"We're going to challenge the whole idea of designing a 'test'
for every competency," Baghai said. "These different bits can be
assembled, whether you're assessing for empathy or integrative
thinking or inclusive leadership or social advocacy. Why do a separate
three-hour multiple-choice test?"
-CATHERINE GEWERTZ

"It's just the first step before moving up the ladder into higher level
learning," said Lucian Spataro Jr.,
the Civics Education Initiative's chief
academic officer.
Few states have embraced largescale testing to measure civics learning. Florida and Massachusetts are
taking that path, but with the intent
to redefine standardized assessment.
In response to a 2010 law that requires a middle school civics course
and exam, Florida created a test
that's widely seen as the best current
example of a comprehensive and
in-depth test of civics knowledge.
First administered in 2013-14, it's a
2 ½-hour digital multiple-choice test.
But experts say it sets a new standard
for questions that demand high levels
of complex thinking.
Even so, Florida's test also illustrates the limitations of standardized
assessment. Some of the state's civics
standards cover competencies that
are impossible to capture with test
questions. They include expectations
that students "simulate the trial process and the role of juries" in administering justice, and "experience the
responsibilities of citizens at the local,
state, or federal levels." The panel of
experts charged with creating test
questions concluded that some standards "were not appropriate to include" on the test, a state department
of education spokeswoman said.
"The test attempts to get at those
things indirectly, and it doesn't always do it well," said Stephen Masyada, the director of the Florida
Joint Center for Citizenship at the
University of Central Florida, which
provides teacher training for the civics course.
Florida is trying to learn about
the impact of its civics instruction
in other ways, too. The state educa-


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Education Week - September 18, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 18, 2019

Education Week - September 18, 2019
How Caring for Students Can Take a Steep Toll
Teachers on Front Lines of Making Schools Safe for Transgender Kids
Could Testing Wreck Civics Education?
Wanted: Teachers as Diverse As Their Students
Briefly Stated
Digital Tools Are Everywhere, But Evidence of Impact Is Not
What the Research Says
Talking Politics at School ‘When the World Is on Fire’
Presidential Candidates Argue Charters, Equity
The Perils of Equity-Focused Leadership
Special and General Education Should Be One Nimble System
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Wanted: Teachers as Diverse As Their Students
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 2
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 4
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Digital Tools Are Everywhere, But Evidence of Impact Is Not
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Talking Politics at School ‘When the World Is on Fire’
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Presidential Candidates Argue Charters, Equity
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 8
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 9
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 10
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 11
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 12
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 13
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 14
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 15
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - The Perils of Equity-Focused Leadership
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Special and General Education Should Be One Nimble System
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - 20
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - September 18, 2019 - CW4
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