Education Week - September 18, 2013 - (Page 22)

22 EDUCATION WEEK n SEPTEMBER 18, 2013 www.edweek.org n Louisiana Vouchers, Desegregation Case Prove Volatile Mix By Mark Walsh There’s a clash of eras going on in Louisiana, where the last remnants of a long-standing desegregation case threaten to thwart state officials who say they have a more modern approach to school reform—one that embraces private school vouchers. The two eras will soon come face to face in a federal courtroom in New Orleans. President Barack Obama’s administration last month filed court papers seeking to enjoin the state from issuing vouchers to students at schools still under court supervision for desegregation unless the state gets the approval of the court overseeing the relevant desegregation plan. The motion, filed under a decades-old statewide desegregation case, might have been classified as routine. The 2012 state law expanding the voucher program statewide acknowledged that the program was “subject to any courtordered desegregation plan in effect” for a particular school district. The U.S. Department of Justice, in court papers, argued that the state was ignoring such desegregation plans and that its award of vouchers last year pulled children away from public schools in a way that “caused the schoolwide racial demographics to stray further from districtwide demographic percentages and resulted in an increase in racially disproportionate representation in 24 historically segregated schools.” State officials all but declared war on the federal government over the motion. “[President Barack] Obama and Attorney General Eric Holder would rip children out of their [voucher] schools and handcuff them to the failing schools they previously attended,” Gov. Bobby Jindal, a Republican, wrote in an opinion essay in The Washington Post. John White, the state superintendent of education, said in an interview, “We’re making a moral argument. … It’s a question of whether this is the right thing for the Justice Department to do.” Asked for a comment, a Justice Department spokesperson issued a statement noting that the department is not seeking “to take vouchers away from students currently receiving them.” “We are not opposing the voucher program,” the statement said. “We simply want to ensure that it is implemented in a legal way, consistent with court-ordered desegregation plans.” Aid to Private Schools The Justice Department points out in its brief that Louisiana used to provide a different form of aid to private schools—contributions of books and transportation help in the 1960s and early 1970s to segregated private schools, which gave white families an easy escape amid efforts to desegregate the public schools. In 1975, in a case known as Brumfield v. Dodd, a federal court in Louisiana barred the state from providing support to private schools in ways that further racial segregation or discrimination. To this day, Louisiana private schools receiving any form of state aid must file forms certifying that they don’t discriminate. The Brumfield case has remained active, with the Justice Department a party. It was under this case that the department filed its Aug. 22 motion regarding the state voucher program. Meanwhile, 34 of Louisiana’s 64 parish (or county) school systems remain under federal court supervision for desegregation; the Justice Department is involved in 24 of them. Some cases are technically active but largely dormant. Other districts have won at least partial “unitary” status, in which a federal court has released the school system from its desegregation obligation in areas such as teacher assignment or transportation. Many of the districts, though, require court approval for actions such as moving school attendance lines and achieving classroom diversity goals. Just last week, members of the Tangipahoa Parish school board met with the public over a pro- Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal defends the state voucher program. posal to modify attendance lines to achieve greater racial balance in the 20,000-student district northwest of New Orleans. Voucher Challenge The voucher program began in 2008 for New Orleans students and went statewide in 2012. It offers vouchers to poor students in public schools that have received grades of C, D, or F from the state. While most voucher programs in other states allow recipients to choose a participating private school, in Louisiana placement decisions are made by the state, with families allowed to re-enter the program lottery if they are dissatisfied with their initial award. The state awarded 5,766 vouchers last school year, and was expected to award some 8,000 this year. The Justice Department alleges that the vouchers, which were awarded to at least 570 students in 22 districts under desegregation plans last school year, have had an impact on racial demographics in at least half of those districts. “Some of these schools had achieved or were close to achieving the desired degree of student racial diversity, and the loss of students through the voucher program reversed much of the progress made toward desegregation,” the department said in court papers. The Justice Department cited examples. One elementary school in the St. Martin Parish school district lost six African-American students to the voucher program last year, making a mostly white school in a mostly black district even whiter. Meanwhile, in Tangipahoa Parish, a mostly black elementary school lost five white students to the voucher program last year in a House Panelists Question Relevancy of Education Dept. Research By Sarah D. Sparks Washington Federal education research has gotten more scientifically rigorous, but in a time of shrinking agency budgets, Congress is debating whether it is practically useful. The first reauthorization of the Education Sciences Reform Act— six years overdue and counting—gained some Hill traction this week, as the latest attempt to renew the Elementary and Secondary Education Act limps in the Senate. The House Education and the Workforce Committee heard testimony last week from top researchers on ways to improve the U.S. Department of Education’s research agency, the Institute of Education Sciences. “As we develop policies to strengthen the institute, we should consider streamlining the federal research structure to reduce duplication, enhance accountability, and make it easier for states and school districts to access important information,” said U.S. Rep. John Kline, RMinn., the committee’s chairman. The House panel is expected to draft language to reauthorize the education research law in the next several weeks, and the Senate seems to be letting the House take the lead; it has no plans to hold its own hearings on educa- tion research this session. The fact that the ESEA reauthorization faces a bitter partisan path to enactment may actually help the smaller, more technical education research law’s chances of reauthorization. The research community are hoping Congress keeps an even keel on IES and pro- Congress should think about making changes for improvement, not starting out with a blank page again.” “ GERALD E. SROUFE American Educational Research Association I Think of government relations for the American Educational Research Association, after the hearing. Scientific Significance Witnesses and congressional lawmakers at the hearing Sept. 10 seemed to agree that federal education research has become more valid and credible since the passage of the 2002 act that created the institute. The institute has beefed up its grant criteria and peer review process, aligning them more closely with the formats used for educa- “ vides more funding flexibility for the $600 million research agency. “Things have improved a great deal at IES, and while there’s certainly room for progress, I think Congress should think about making changes for improvement, not starting with a blank page again,” Gerald E. Sroufe, the director intervention from one school to 500. “Until ESRA and IES, education re- search was allowed to function at a standard that would never pass muster with public health, employment and training, or welfare policy, let alone medicine or agriculture,” said James J. Kemple, the executive director of the Research Alliance for New York City Schools at New York University. Building Relevance IES is in some ways “still burdened with the legacy of more than two generations of ineffective I’m not hearing strength in the answer that this could not be done in a market-based approach.” U.S. REP. TIM WALBERG R-Mich. tion-related research in the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. This week, it released common guidelines with the National Science Foundation for six different types of education research and development, from studying new theories of learning all the way to figuring out how to scale up a successful reading > > The POLITICS K12 blog tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/go/politicsk12 education research,” Kemple testified at the hearing, and this may have made the research agency too single-minded in its early days: “It’s a work in progress. In some cases, IES has forwarded rigor at the expense of education policy and practical relevance.” A U.S. Government Accountability Office report previewed at the hearing found, for example, that IES does not routinely translate all of its research into language easy for nonacademics to understand. It also criticizes the agency for long turnaround time for many studies, noting that IES’ average peer-review time has lengthened from 117 days in fiscal year 2011 to 175 days in fiscal year 2012. Bridget Terry Long, the Harvard Graduate School of Education academic dean and the chairwoman of the National Board for Education Sciences, IES’ advisory board, noted that IES under Director John Q. Easton has required more partnerships between researchers and practitioners, and is launching a new center devoted to evaluating how well research is being translated into usable knowledge. Both she and Mr. Kemple argued that the institute should be strengthened in the next reauthorization of the law. More Authority? Many of IES’ research programs are determined by Congress, although the agency does set topic priorities. By comparison, research agencies such as NSF or the National Institutes of Health have more power to shift their research programs to respond to issues identified by researchers in the field. “In IES, you really don’t have that freedom,” Mr. Sroufe said. Moreover, while Congress does http://www.edweek.org http://www.edweek.org/go/politicsk12

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 18, 2013

Education Week - September 18, 2013
Calif. Testing Move Hits Federal Nerve
Teacher-Review Tool: Classroom Portfolios
TFA Educators Found to Boost Math Learning
Assessment Group Sets Accommodations Policy
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Spoken-Word Poets Bring Words to Life for Students
Partnership in Bronx Aims to Build Skills On Behalf of Parents
National-Board Certification to Be Cheaper, Smoother
Iowa District Reimagines the Five-Day School Week
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Consumer Demand for Digital Ed. Games Seen Rising
Blogs of the Week
Ed. Dept., Arizona in Clash Over Waiver
Congress Gears Up for Higher Ed. Law Renewal
Policy Brief
Louisiana Vouchers, Desegregation Case Prove Volatile Mix
House Panelists Question Relevancy of Education Dept. Research
Why the New Teacher Ed. Standards Matter
Unfairly Fired Teachers Deserve Court Protection
A Sandy Hook Parent’s Letter to Teachers
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Encouraging Courage

Education Week - September 18, 2013

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