Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 16

OPINION
WEIGHING
THE RESEARCH

What works
Wha
t doe
sn't

Teachers, Live Screen Time
Is Precious. Use It Well
Vanessa Solis/Education Week and iStock /Getty Images Plus

W

Research suggestions to restructure remote learning

anted for the new school year:
high-quality remote-learning
experiences to engage and
benefit all students.
In the current pandemic
reality, educators can
improve learning, we
believe, by finding better ways to use and structure students'
work time. That's true whether learning is fully remote via
computers, phones, or packets or whether it includes inperson instruction.
When in-person schooling ended abruptly this spring,
the learning opportunities then available to students varied
enormously. Some students received no distance instruction,
and others got a hodgepodge of a synchronous virtual
classroom, asynchronous online activities, and worksheets
and packets. Educators scrambled to keep a semblance of
school going till normal returned.
But now, with many locations choosing to open the year
either fully virtual or in a hybrid of in-person groups and
remote teaching, educators
must tackle how to help
By H. Alix Gallagher
& Benjamin Cottingham children learn, and learn
effectively, in those formats.
GALLAGHER is the director of
And while access to devices
strategic partnerships at Policy
and the internet is important,
Analysis for California Education
data on student engagement
(PACE). COTTINGHAM is the
in online learning last spring
associate director of strategic
from several large districts
partnerships at PACE. This essay
showed technology access
is part of a series that aims to put
alone is insufficient for
the pieces of research together for
providing quality distance
education decisionmakers.
learning. Equally important
is reconceptualizing teaching
and learning for the current situations.
As part of our work at Policy Analysis for California
Education at Stanford University, we have been reviewing
research that can help guide districts as they think about this
fall. We started from the premise, based in research, that
whether in person or remotely, effective instruction provides
students a mix of expository, active, and interactive learning
opportunities. That is, students are presented new knowledge
or skills (the expository opportunity), students practice them
(the active opportunity), and then students engage with
teachers and peers around the new knowledge and skills (the
interactive opportunity).

Conceptualizing how to provide students expository
and active instruction is relatively simple in the current
context because these activities can be done by students
independently. Interactive learning, on the other hand, will
require more intensive planning from teachers and school
leaders. The work is worth it, though: Interactive learning
is central in many pedagogies, ranging from the ancient
Socratic method to more recently developed inquiry-oriented
pedagogies. We believe that plans for remote teaching should
prioritize sufficient interactive learning opportunities.
The best evidence for how to sequence expository, active,
and interactive learning-and how to make the most use
of the limited synchronous time in virtual classrooms-
comes from the flipped-classroom model, which has shown
small positive effects on student outcomes in over 100
studies. Flipped classrooms first present students with new
information asynchronously (by textbook or video, for
example) and then require students to complete activities
that help them process the basic information and practice
new skills independently (via comprehension questions or
practice problems, among other means).
These activities should also provide the teacher with feedback
to diagnose student misconceptions and tailor the limited
synchronous time to meet student needs. Students then come
to class (in person or by video/phone conference), where the
teacher might begin with a mini-lesson to address common
misunderstandings. Then the majority of class time is spent
in interactive learning-for example, discussions of content or
group projects-in which students build a deeper understanding
than they could be expected to achieve on their own.
Structuring synchronous instructional time around
interactive learning is also a promising strategy because
the social and academic components of learning are
intertwined. Students learn many socioemotional skills
such as relationship-building and self-management
at school, and overall they learn better-academically
and socioemotionally-when they have strong school
relationships with adults and peers.
Unfortunately, many students lost these interactions in the
sudden shift to distance learning last spring. That makes it
all the more critical to provide plenty of interactive learning
now. We think it will boost such learning to create smaller
groups of students for some portion of school time via
"breakout rooms" or by using more standard group projects.
Also promising is using all available adults-including
paraprofessionals-for synchronous instruction to lower

16 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 16, 2020 | www.edweek.org/go/opinion

online-class sizes. Common sense suggests that smaller
groups and lower student-adult ratios can help increase
interactive opportunities. And some research indicates that
cooperative learning, when structured around group goals
and individual student accountability for working toward
those goals, can improve learning.
Another critical step in rethinking the use of instructional
time is recognizing that students, like adults, are vulnerable
to "Zoom gloom"-attention fatigue from interpreting social
cues through live video for prolonged periods. Students
should not be expected to watch hours of teacher-directed
lessons. This is especially true for younger students, who
have relatively little capacity to remain engaged in passive
distance learning activities. Younger students benefit from
learning through games, shorter chunks of instruction, and
opportunities to use manipulatives or routines from daily life.
Teachers can use online learning tools but also physical
materials sent home (such as books and math manipulatives)
to provide students and families with a variety of options for
asynchronous learning. These ideas can be modified to meet
the developmental stages of older learners, who have longer
attention spans and can become deeply engaged in activities
that are not designed as play.
Leaders must think, too, about the new demands that
remote learning places on families and caregivers. Schools
need to develop systematic ways to monitor student
engagement, following up with unengaged students and
seeking family feedback on how distance learning is going.
Teachers need to clearly and consistently communicate their
expectations to families, as well as respectfully teach parents
what they need to know to support their children, whether
that's navigating learning-management systems or finding
math problems in everyday activities.
Finally, we urge educational leaders to recognize that two
things held true last spring: Many teachers worked harder
than they've ever worked before, and many families were
unhappy with the quality of education schools provided.
To fix that, teachers will need lots of help. Schools and
districts must support teachers with planning time and
professional development, including good models of
remote instruction. Districts and states must provide clear
pedagogical guidance along with curated collections of highquality resources.
The new prototypes will be far from perfect, but by
modifying wisely, trying, and revising, educators really can
get more of the high-quality learning they are aiming for. „


http://www.edweek.org/go/opinion

Education Week - September 16, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 16, 2020

Education Week - September 16, 2020
Briefly Stated
Mask Fatigue and No High-Fives: Teachers Discuss the Hardest Parts of In-Person School During COVID-19
New Players Fill Child-Care Gap As Schools Go Remote
COVID-19 Fuels Enrollment Increases in Virtual Schools
Districts Struggle to Keep Tabs on COVID-19 Cases in Schools, Communities
Districts Offer Cash to Families Who Skip the School Bus
Teacher Morale and Student Enrollment Declining Under COVID-19, Survey Shows
Teachers, Live Screen Time is Precious. Use It Well
When Black Lives Only Matter Conditionally
EdWeek Top School Jobs
How Ready Are We to Support Kids?
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Education Week - September 16, 2020
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 3
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Mask Fatigue and No High-Fives: Teachers Discuss the Hardest Parts of In-Person School During COVID-19
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 5
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - New Players Fill Child-Care Gap As Schools Go Remote
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 7
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - COVID-19 Fuels Enrollment Increases in Virtual Schools
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 9
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Districts Struggle to Keep Tabs on COVID-19 Cases in Schools, Communities
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 11
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Districts Offer Cash to Families Who Skip the School Bus
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 13
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Teacher Morale and Student Enrollment Declining Under COVID-19, Survey Shows
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 15
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - Teachers, Live Screen Time is Precious. Use It Well
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 17
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - When Black Lives Only Matter Conditionally
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 19
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 20
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 21
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - 22
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 16, 2020 - How Ready Are We to Support Kids?
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