Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 5

REPORT ROUNDUP TEACHER PAY 35 of them were in the building at the time, but none witnessed the shootings. Kindergartners at the time, they are now 4th graders. -AP Calif. Lawmakers Approve Alarm for School Buses Legislation intended to prevent children from being left unattended on parked school buses in California was headed last week to Gov. Jerry Brown. A bill approved unanimously in the Senate comes in response to the death of a 19-year-old autistic boy, Paul Lee of Whittier. Lee was left for hours on a hot school bus. The measure would require school buses to have child-safety alarms. The alarm sounds when the engine is turned off and requires the bus driver to walk to the back of the bus to turn it off. Deactivating the alarm would remind the driver to check for children still on board. -AP N.M. District to Install Gun Safes on Campuses Middle and high schools in Los Alamos, N.M., will soon have gun safes full of shotguns and semi-automatic weapons on campus. The Los Alamos school board late last month approved Police Chief Dino Sgambellone's request to have police-owned gun safes installed inside the schools. He said the safes will help officers respond more quickly in the case of an active shooter. Often, the chief said, valuable time is lost when officers have to run back to their cars to retrieve weapons they need to handle a shooter situation. The cases will be bolted down in a secure area, and only police officers will have access to the equipment. -AP "One-Third of Teachers Moonlight to Support Families" In Poor Areas, After-School Programs Are in Demand "America After 3PM Special Report: Afterschool in Communities of Concentrated Poverty" One in 3 Texas teachers moonlights to make ends meet, a new Texas State Teachers Association survey finds. Those teachers work about 13 hours a week at their out-of-school jobs and an additional 17 hours a week doing school-related work outside regular school hours. Most of the respondents-59 percent-were major income-earners for their families. Seventy-nine percent were women, and 21 percent were men. The survey, which was conducted by researchers at Sam Houston State University, is not scientific, with just 837 of the union's 60,000 teacher members responding. The average starting salary for a new teacher in Texas is $38,828, although the minimum starting salary is $28,080 for a 10-month contract. The average teacher salary statewide in 2015-16 was $52,090, said the Texas Association of School Boards. -MADELINE WILL For every child in an after-school program in a high-poverty community, two more are waiting to get in, according to a report from the Afterschool Alliance. The study drew on survey data collected in 2014 from more than 30,000 parents and included 13,000 in-depth interviews to examine parents' thoughts on after-school and summer learning opportunities. Respondents were identified as living in a community of concentrated poverty if their ZIP code fell within a U.S. Census tract that has been designated as such or if they lived in a ZIP code with a poverty rate of 30 percent or higher. The survey found that 24 percent of children living in areas of concentrated poverty participated in after-school programs, compared with 18 percent nationally. But the number of students living in concentrated poverty who would take part in an after-school program if it were available to them was 56 percent. The comparable average figure for the nation as a whole was 41 percent. For African-American families in those communities, the demand was even higher: While 27 percent of black students attended after-school programs, 71 percent said they would attend such programs if they were available. The Afterschool Alliance received support for its 2014 survey from five foundations, including the Wallace Foundation and the Noyce Foundation, both of which underwrite some content coverage in Education Week. -MARVA HINTON DISTRICT LEADERSHIP "Retention, Attrition, and Mobility Among Teachers and Administrators in West Virginia" Administrators in rural West Virginia schools leave their positions at rates higher than their peers in bigger and more urban districts, according to a recent report. The Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia studied retention, attrition, and mobility rates among teachers and administrators in West Virginia districts to determine how those rates vary depending on such factors as size and locale. The study found teachers' movements were similar in different types of districts, but administrators were more likely to move if they were less experienced or in a smaller district. More than 12 percent of rural administrators left their districts, compared with about 8 percent of administrators in city schools. Teacher retention, attrition, and mobility rates tended to differ based on experience level and salary, rather than district locale. -JACKIE MADER TEACHER GUIDANCE Students Now Can Publish Letters to Next President "Eliciting Explanations: Constraints on When Self-Explanation Aids Learning" The National Writing Project and PBS member station KQED in San Francisco have launched a website, Letters to the Next President 2.0, that will publish thousands of students' letters on the issues that matter to them this election season. The initiative is aimed at secondary students who might not be able to vote but still have opinions about policies being discussed in the campaign-and what they hope will be the next president's priorities. Teachers can create accounts on the website and invite their students to register and then submit letters in written or multimedia formats. In the letters published so far, students are most concerned about abortion rights, education-college costs, sexual education, and equity-immigration, and issues surrounding racial profiling and the Black Lives Matter movement. The website will accept letters through Nov. 8. Published ones will remain on the website through the new president's first 100 days in office. -MADELINE WILL When students explain incorrect thinking, they could very well be cementing their own misunderstandings, says a recent literature review. Bethany Rittle-Johnson, a psychology professor at Vanderbilt University, looked at 85 peer-reviewed studies on self-explanation, or the process of generating explanations to make sense of new information. She found that while prompting self-explanation is generally good practice and can improve learning, there are some caveats. "If kids are just off explaining their own thinking without guidance, then they can be spending their time essentially justifying stuff that's wrong," she said. Instead, students should explain things they know are correct-or things they know are incorrect. The review was published online in August in the journal Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. -LIANA HEITIN EARLY LEARNING "Oakland ECE Household Interview Results" In the lower-income neighborhoods of Oakland, Calif., 70 percent of parents read to their young children at least three days a week, according to a survey of 420 par- ents conducted in the spring by the Kenneth Rainin Foundation, a local philanthropy. The survey covered five Oakland neighborhoods. One of them, North Oakland, is increasingly white and middle class. The others are predominately working class to poor. The differences in the responses between neighborhoods were pronounced enough that the surveyors separated the North Oakland responses in several calculations. For example, 93 percent of North Oaklanders read to their children daily, compared with 70 percent for other communities. Setting North Oakland aside, low-income parents listed more positive parenting behaviors than they are often given credit for. More than 70 percent said they hugged their children, told them they loved them, and tucked them in at night seven days a week. Sixty-eight percent said they went to the library several times a month. More than half had 10 or more children's books at home. But the parents in the neighborhoods outside North Oakland were also more likely to have misconceptions about which activities are most helpful for young children. A third of them-but none of the North Oakland parents-mistakenly thought letting a toddler read the same book over and over would keep the child from learning new words. -LILLIAN MONGEAU TRANSGENDER STUDENTS "Suicidality, Self-Harm, and Body Dissatisfaction in Transgender Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Gender Dysphoria" Thirty percent of transgender students attempt suicide, finds a new study by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and many other such students show problems at school. Medical-center researchers analyzed the medical records of 96 transgender students ages 12 to 22 who had visited the hospital's transgender clinic since 2013. They found students transitioning from female to male were at higher risk for self-harm than those transitioning from male to female; by contrast, boys in general have higher suicide rates than girls. More than 60 percent of all the transgender students had a history of being bullied at school, more than 19 percent had gotten into fights at school, and nearly a quarter had been suspended or expelled. More than 17 percent also reported repeating a grade at school. The authors suggest that professionals who work with the students should be aware of warning signs of depression and self-harm, particularly for those who express problems or concern over the way they look with regard to gender. The study was published in August in the journal Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. -SARAH D. SPARKS RESEARCH USE "Better Evidence, Better Choices, Better Schools" The Every Student Succeeds Act will give states and districts more authority to be creative in improving schools, but they will need support to use research and data effectively, according to a report by the Center for American Progress think tank and the Knowledge Alliance, a professional group for federally funded research organizations. The approach to using research evidence under the No Child Left Behind Act, ESSA's predecessor, offered "a fairly narrow set of criteria for what evidence should count in school improvement decisions," focused on so-called "gold standard" randomized controlled studies, the report says. ESSA still favors that type of study, but also allows states to incorporate a wider array of research methods. The authors recommend that states support clearinghouses for high-quality evidence, rather than listing state-approved programs. They also call for more training for district officials on how to evaluate research and incorporate it into school improvement planning. -S.D.S. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT "Measurement Instruments for Assessing the Performance of Professional Learning Communities" Professional learning communities are a popular way of helping teachers work together to solve problems and improve instruction, but it can be hard to judge how effective they are. A new guide from the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic outlines 49 evidencebased measures districts can use to assess those groups. It details 31 quantitative and 18 qualitative measures that gauge a variety of aspects of a professional learning community, including: shared and supportive leadership, shared values and vision, collective learning and application, personal practice, and supportive conditions for structure and relationships. The authors recommend districts consider the goals of their groups and tailor assessments based on local needs. -S.D.S. EDUCATION WEEK | September 7, 2016 | | 5

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 7, 2016

Education Week - September 7, 2016
Are Dual-Enrollment Programs Being Oversold?
Inclusive Classes Have Downsides, Researchers Find
For New Kindergartners, a Whirlwind Introduction
Report Roundup
Tax Boosts to Aid K-12 Up for Vote
News in Brief
Amid Shortage Fears, States Ease Teacher-Licensing Rules
Rating Materials for Reading
Longer Day, Year Required for Many Head Start Programs
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Parent Group Sees Education Technology ‘Threats’
Draft ESSA Funding Rules Unveiled
Trump Taps Indiana Lawmaker’s Staffer To Craft Plan on School Choice
Amid School-Closure Worries, Mich. Lists Low-Performers
NICHOLAS C. DONOHUE: Don’t Fix High Schools, Transform Them
BARBARA DUFFIELD: How ESSA May Help Homeless Students
NITA LOWEY: ‘Books, Not Bullets’
T opSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ALFIE KOHN: Bullying the Bully
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Tax Boosts to Aid K-12 Up for Vote
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 2
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Contents
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 5
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Rating Materials for Reading
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Longer Day, Year Required for Many Head Start Programs
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Parent Group Sees Education Technology ‘Threats’
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 9
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 10
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 11
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 12
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 13
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 14
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Trump Taps Indiana Lawmaker’s Staffer To Craft Plan on School Choice
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Amid School-Closure Worries, Mich. Lists Low-Performers
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 17
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - BARBARA DUFFIELD: How ESSA May Help Homeless Students
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - NITA LOWEY: ‘Books, Not Bullets’
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 21
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - T opSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 23
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - ALFIE KOHN: Bullying the Bully
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Education Week - September 7, 2016 - CT2
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