Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 10

Are Nondisabled Students Worse Off in Inclusive Classes? CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 Gottfried, an associate professor of education at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his colleagues. Gottfried drew on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten, also known as the ECLS-K, which tracked children from kindergarten through 8th grade. "I knew it would be controversial because the results ... do show a direct negative effect," Gottfried said. "I don't think that kids with disabilities should be segregated as they have in the past, but that doesn't mean we should ignore what the results are saying." Gottfried cautioned that the results are preliminary, and that future research should dig deeper into the issue, looking at factors such as the severity of a child's disability, the backgrounds of students both with and without disabilities, the level of support available for teachers, and how inclusion is actually being implemented. If policymakers and school officials just focus on exclusion, he said, "I think that readers are missing the point. The point is, here is a situation that we have and what systems of supports can improve outcomes for everyone?" Research Origins Inclusion has long been a fundamental tenet of special education. In the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, lawmakers made their intent clear: Students are presumed to be educated in a general education class unless their disability prevents that. While recognizing that "every decision made for a child with a disability must be made on the basis of what that individual child needs, ... when the decision is made to educate the child separately, an explanation of that decision will need, at a minimum, to be stated as part of the child's [individualized education program]," said a Senate committee tasked with rewriting the law. For such a bedrock plank of special education, however, the effectiveness of full inclusion for all students is still debated. One often-cited study is a 2002 paper led by Eric A. Hanushek, a leader in economic analysis of education issues. That paper found that full inclusion boosts the math achievement of special education students, particularly those with learning or emotional disabilities, without causing any academic drag to students without disabilities. That study focused on students who were in the same grade, but not necessarily in the same class. In 2009, Jason Fletcher, currently a professor of public affairs with a specialty in the economics of education at the University of WisconsinMadison, became one of the first researchers to take a closer look at what he called the "spillover ef- fects" of inclusion on nondisabled students in the same classrooms. At the time, he focused on students with emotional and behavioral disabilities, because integrating such students into the classroom presents unique challenges. Using the same nationally representative sample of students that Gottfried would later use and focusing on reading and math scores, Fletcher found that the negative spillover effects were more "robust and larger for reading" and had more of an impact on African-American and Hispanic nondisabled students in low-income schools. Fletcher also reported that score gaps between Hispanic and white students were larger at the end of the school year in classrooms with students with emotional or behavioral disabilities than they were in demographically similar classrooms without such students. The same pattern held for the gaps between white and black students. Following on Fletcher's work, Gottfried and colleagues conducted three separate investigations to test for spillover effects on nondisabled students in areas other than academics. Findings were published in 2014, 2015, and, most recently, this year in Early Childhood Research Quarterly. They pointed to significant effects for absenteeism rates and other noncognitive outcomes among nondisabled students. The noncognitive outcomes included both externalizing behaviors-such as arguing, fighting, impulsivity, disruptive behaviors-and internalizing behaviors-anxiety, loneliness, low selfesteem, sadness, and self-control. For instance, the number of absences reported among nondisabled peers of pupils with emotional and behavioral disturbances in kindergarten increased by a half day on average. (The data on absenteeism and noncognitive outcomes were all based on teacher reports during the spring of the kindergarten year.) And, like Fletcher, Gottfried and his colleagues also pointed to a potential larger cumulative effect. "While this doesn't seem excessive, a classroom of 18 students would aggregately experience a loss of nine full instructional days in a single year of schooling," the researchers write in their 2016 study, which focused on absenteeism. Also, "the disruptive effect of these absences on the teaching and learning environment would be further exaggerated by ... creating a situation in which the teacher must repeatedly revisit old content for the benefit of those who missed its introduction instead of always moving on to newer, more advanced material," they conclude. The Controversy Although actual research on the benefits of including students with such disabilities has been scarce over the past 10 years, there is general agreement that educating students with disabilities in inclusive settings results in positive academic and learning outcomes, social acceptance, consistent interactions and friendships for students with disabilities, and enhanced under- I don't think that kids with disabilities should be segregated ... but that doesn't mean we should ignore what the results are saying." MICHAEL A. GOTTFRIED University of California, Santa Barbara "Classmates With Disabilities and Students' Noncognitive Outcomes" STUDIES ON 'SPILLOVER EFFECTS' Author: Michael A. Gottfried Year: 2014 Researchers have found that young students who do not have disabilities experience negative impacts when they are educated in the same classroom as peers who have emotional or behavioral disabilities. These studies have all used a nationally representative sample of students called the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort to gauge the impact of inclusion. Here's what those studies have found. Findings: Young students with a greater number of classmates with educational disabilities have higher numbers of problem behaviors and worse social skills. The effects are largest for students who have classmates with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The negative effects were less pronounced for students with high academic abilities, and for those in classes taught by an experienced teacher. "The Effect of Having Classmates with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and the Protective Nature of Peer Gender" "Spillover Effects of Inclusion of Classmates with Emotional Problems on Test Scores in Early Elementary School" Author: Michael A. Gottfried and Aletha Harven Year: 2015 Author: Jason Fletcher Findings: When it comes to academic achievement, being in a classroom with a higher percentage of girls was found to lessen the negative "spillover effect" of having a classmate with an emotional or behavioral disability. Researchers theorized that girls may exhibit greater levels of emotional support and acceptance of diversity. Journal: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Year: 2010 Findings: Having a classmate with an identified emotional disability is associated with lower test scores in reading and in math for kindergartners and 1st graders who do not have a disability, especially for African-American and Hispanic students. Students in full-inclusion classrooms are affected more than those in classrooms that practice partial inclusion. The effects themselves are not large, but Fletcher hypothesized that the aggregate effects may be substantial because nearly 10 percent of students in the sample have a classmate with an emotional or behavioral disability. " "Does the Presence of a Classmate With Emotional/ Behavioral Disabilities Link to Other Students' Absences in Kindergarten?" Author: Michael A. Gottfried et al. Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly SOURCE: Education Week 10 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 7, 2016 | www.edweek.org Year: 2016 Findings: Students who had a classmate with an emotional or behavioral disability missed approximately half a day more of school than students who did not have such a classmate. The odds that a student was chronically absent were 1.42 times greater for students who had a classmate with an emotional or behavioral disability. http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 7, 2016

Education Week - September 7, 2016
Contents
Are Dual-Enrollment Programs Being Oversold?
Inclusive Classes Have Downsides, Researchers Find
For New Kindergartners, a Whirlwind Introduction
Report Roundup
Tax Boosts to Aid K-12 Up for Vote
News in Brief
Amid Shortage Fears, States Ease Teacher-Licensing Rules
Rating Materials for Reading
Longer Day, Year Required for Many Head Start Programs
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Parent Group Sees Education Technology ‘Threats’
Draft ESSA Funding Rules Unveiled
Trump Taps Indiana Lawmaker’s Staffer To Craft Plan on School Choice
Amid School-Closure Worries, Mich. Lists Low-Performers
NICHOLAS C. DONOHUE: Don’t Fix High Schools, Transform Them
BARBARA DUFFIELD: How ESSA May Help Homeless Students
NITA LOWEY: ‘Books, Not Bullets’
Letters
T opSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ALFIE KOHN: Bullying the Bully
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Tax Boosts to Aid K-12 Up for Vote
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 2
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Contents
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 5
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Rating Materials for Reading
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Longer Day, Year Required for Many Head Start Programs
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Parent Group Sees Education Technology ‘Threats’
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 9
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 10
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 11
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 12
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 13
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 14
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Trump Taps Indiana Lawmaker’s Staffer To Craft Plan on School Choice
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Amid School-Closure Worries, Mich. Lists Low-Performers
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 17
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - BARBARA DUFFIELD: How ESSA May Help Homeless Students
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - NITA LOWEY: ‘Books, Not Bullets’
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 21
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - T opSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - 23
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - ALFIE KOHN: Bullying the Bully
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - September 7, 2016 - CT4
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