Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 18

COMMENTARY

"

Getty

There are five
responsibilities
schools should
have in order to
truly be defined
as 'public.' "

How to Define Public Schooling
In the Age of Choice?

O

By Sarah M. Stitzlein
ur country's schools-whether they be
charters, recovery districts, traditional
public schools, or those that take vouchers-are becoming increasingly difficult
to categorize. Recent changes in school
governance, funding, and practice have
arisen in response to both some legitimate and some wrongly perceived
failures of public schools. Some states, seeking alternatives to low-performing public schools, have chosen to use
vouchers to redirect children living in those districts into
private or religious schools funded by public taxpayer
dollars, believing those schools can raise student performance. These changes could be accelerated by President
Donald Trump's plans to expand school choice via more
voucher programs, an approach celebrated by U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos.
Too often, some so-called "public" schools are only formally
public in the sense that they are government-run, taxpayerfunded, and subject to various accountability measures.
Many struggle to fulfill a key expectation of what public
schools were meant to do: provide equal opportunities for
all children. Many citizens have been content to accept the
formal classification of "public" without upholding criteria
for the way that public schools ought to function. This is a
problem.
Proponents of newer and alternative types of public
schools, such as recovery districts and for-profit charter
schools, increasingly cast public schools in formalist terms-
categorizing them by their form, rather than their function-
while trimming those terms to better align with their own
structure.
According to the definition of one longtime school choice
advocate, senior fellow and president emeritus of the Thomas
B. Fordham Institute Chester E. Finn Jr., a public school is
"any school that is open to the public, paid for by the public, and accountable to the public. It need not be run by the
government." Such labeling allows private and for-profit
service providers to run public schools as long as they meet

minimum formal criteria of being publicly funded and held
to basic accountability standards.
But this label fails to encapsulate how corporate-managed
charter schools operate as autonomous entities. About half
the students attending charter schools go to one that is privately corporate-managed, according to estimates by the
research nonprofit National Education Policy Center at the
University of Colorado. For example, they may be accountable to communities only through standardized-testing performance, but not through an elected school board. They often
draw on additional funding from private investors, who in
turn hold the management organizations to their own expectations of profit and success at the expense of students.
In fact, it's in the interests of those advocating for private
and alternative schools to redefine the nature of public
schools in ways that will enable more of the annual $600
billion spent on public schools at the local, state, and federal levels to flow their way. Vouchers, according to a July
tweet from DeVos, are "an investment in individual students." This thinking argues that providing direct funds to
students' families is equitable. But it downplays the limited
nature of voucher schools, which can hold meetings behind
closed doors, impose admissions criteria to block out certain
students, and submit minimal accountability data. What's
more, emphasizing financial investment in an individual
child is directly the opposite of long-standing views on what
public schools should be doing-serving our democracy
through the common good.
In this changing terrain, there are five responsibilities
schools should have in order to truly be defined as "public":
* Public schools should be open to the public, meaning all
children are not only permitted but are also welcomed and
equitably supported, even if their education may be more
costly than average, such as that of students with disabilities or English-language learners.
* They should serve the public, meaning they meet societal needs like preparing active citizens to maintain the
government and economy or to serve in the military or on
juries, while also preparing graduates to critique and revise
those needs.
* They should be responsive to the public, enabling com-

18 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 6, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

munity members to vote out school officials or change school
policies through meaningful and viable avenues like elections, referendums, and open school meetings.
* They should be creators of the public, meaning that they
cultivate citizens who know how to exchange ideas and respond to the ideas of others, while tolerating and working
across differences.
* They should sustain democracy by developing skills and
dispositions within children for participating and enacting
freedom-oriented decisionmaking.
As places where students come together to deliberate,
learn, celebrate, and solve problems, public schools can
unite large and diverse groups around common culture,
while still maintaining respect for individuality and distinction. As the late political theorist Benjamin Barber
believed, public schools are places where children learn
to be a public.
Sustaining democracy requires the skills and knowledge
best offered in schools that are formally and functionally
public. This is not to say that many don't fall short of democratic goals. Yet the nature of public schools outlined in those
five criteria provides the potential for meeting those ends
in ways not always possible in private or for-profit charter
schools, whose missions, student bodies, ideologies, and
closed-door-governing practices are often too constrained to
be aligned with democratic aims.
The debate will no doubt continue about which types of
schools deserve public tax dollars. If we continue to focus on
categorizing schools as public merely on the basis of their
increasingly narrowed elements of formal operation, we will
gloss over their function as places of citizenship development. We must instead concentrate on what public schools
can and should provide for all students-and be careful
about where we toss the label. The health of our education
system and democracy depend on it. n
SARAH M. STITZLEIN is a professor of education and affiliate faculty
in philosophy at the University of Cincinnati. She is the author of the
newly released American Public Schools and the Responsibility of its
Citizens: Supporting Democracy in the Age of Accountability (Oxford
University Press).


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 6, 2017

Education Week - September 6, 2017
Teachers Carve Out a Place in the Curriculum For LGBT History
Learning to Teach Via Virtual Reality
Rule Targets District Bias In Spec. Ed.
Hurricane Takes Heavy Toll on Schools
Report Roundup
News in Brief
State Educational-Leadership Initiatives In Budget ‘Pickle’
New Tool Alerts Teachers When Students Give Up on Test
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Mobile Devices Put Education In Hands of Syrian Refugees
LGBT Curricula Spreads Slowly
Tweaking School Turnarounds
After Fierce Fight, Illinois Enacts Tax-Credit Scholarship Program
President’s Youngest Son Joins Back-to-School Crowd
Sarah M. Stitzlein: How to Define Public Schooling in the Age of Choice?
Q&A With Jack Schneider: What Makes a School Good? It’s More Than Test Scores
READERS REACT: Have SAT Accommodations Really Gone Too Far?
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Chris Elmendorf & Darien Shanske: We Need Better Education Data
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Hurricane Takes Heavy Toll on Schools
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 2
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 3
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 5
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - State Educational-Leadership Initiatives In Budget ‘Pickle’
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - New Tool Alerts Teachers When Students Give Up on Test
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Mobile Devices Put Education In Hands of Syrian Refugees
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 9
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 10
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 11
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 12
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 13
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - LGBT Curricula Spreads Slowly
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 15
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - After Fierce Fight, Illinois Enacts Tax-Credit Scholarship Program
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - President’s Youngest Son Joins Back-to-School Crowd
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Sarah M. Stitzlein: How to Define Public Schooling in the Age of Choice?
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Q&A With Jack Schneider: What Makes a School Good? It’s More Than Test Scores
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 21
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 23
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Chris Elmendorf & Darien Shanske: We Need Better Education Data
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW4
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