Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 11

sures of heart rate, blood pressure,
and galvanized skin response,
Lamb has shown that the body and
mind respond similarly to virtual
reality and real life.
For instance, he said, whether
teachers are doing a lesson in front
of a real group of students at his
laboratory or in front of a VR class,
the test results follow the same
general trend. "It's looking like the
brain doesn't care," he said.
Authenticity is important,
though, which is why he thinks it's
best to use video.
Teach Live, a program created
by the University of Central Florida that is now in use at dozens
of teacher education institutions
across the country, including Buffalo, has a similar concept-but
instead of using video, it's a simulated environment. The students
are computer-generated characters, or avatars, whose movements
and speech are controlled on the
other end by a professional actor.
Within that kind of animated
simulation, the students and
teacher can engage in a natural
back-and-forth, which isn't yet possible with the video VR project. But
the sessions have to be scheduled
to accommodate parties on both
ends, unlike the VR, which teachers can pick up and practice with
at any time using even a cheap
cardboard headset.
David Cantaffa, an assistant
provost for educator preparation
for the State University of New
York, the project funder, was surprised by the extent to which the
VR made him feel transported to
the classroom.
But to be most powerful for
classroom-management training, "I
think it would need to be interactive so that you could step forward,
step back, interact with kids, kneel
down, and have a conversation of
some sort," he said.
The producers and programmers
at Crosswater Digital say they're
getting there. Companies like
IBM are making advances in natural-language processing to allow
computers to better understand
human speech, which Crosswater
is exploring incorporating into its
VR scenarios.
Forward movement in virtual reality is also possible, but quite complicated. "When you take a 360-degree camera shot, the camera is
in one position, and you're taking
data from that position," said Lauren Innes, a video editor at Crosswater. "If you wanted to move, you
would literally have to take camera
shots of [every position]."
Armin St. George, the senior vice
president at Crosswater, which is
creating the pilot VR for the university-charter collaboration at a
much-reduced rate, estimated there
would be some minimal interaction
capabilities within the next four to
six months. The ability to speak to
the system, though, is likely more
than a year away.
Julie Schwab, the school superintendent for Enterprise, is eyeing
using the VR scenarios both for inservice teacher training this school
year and during the teacher-hiring
process.
Most of the teachers who come in
to her school are white, middle-class

women, she said, and many have
never worked in an urban setting.
"They don't have the background
knowledge to understand where
these kids are coming from,"
Schwab said.

'Stereotyping Threat Is Real'
With the VR, teachers could practice responding to challenging behaviors without the risk of causing
emotional harm to real students,
she said.
Ideally, they'd be more measured
in their reactions to tough situations
when they got to the classroom, she
said. "From a cognition side, I've
already processed this before, so I

have some experiences I can draw
on," explained Lamb, the researcher.
But a problem with this work is
that it can also potentially reinforce
stereotypes about students.
The majority of students at Enterprise are black-and the half-dozen
students featured misbehaving in
the videos are all black. Research
has consistently shown that black
and Latino students are disciplined
at disproportionately higher rates
than their white peers.
"I do get nervous about putting my kids out there and the
stereotypes that could come," said
Schwab.
The training programs that use
avatars have a leg up here, said

Christopher Dede, a professor of
learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Within those simulations, it's
easy to change students' races and
genders-so the programs can even
be used to help teachers recognize
their own biases, he said.
With video, in particular, because
it's so expensive to shoot, "I think
the stereotyping threat is real because it's just harder to show so
many alternatives that you're not
stereotyping," said Dede.
Cantaffa of SUNY sees a lot of
promise in the video-based VR
technology beyond the fraught area
of classroom management. Perhaps education schools can use it

for practice administering literacy
tests, running special education
meetings, or delivering lessons.
"Having been a teacher, there are
many moments in which it's quite
anxiety-ridden to be in front of a
class," he said. "But if the VR experience can help create those anxieties, it might help me in terms of
muscle memory when I encounter
that pedagogical moment in which
I'm also anxious."
Coverage of policy efforts to improve
the teaching profession is supported by
a grant from the Joyce Foundation, at
www.joycefdn.org/Programs/Education.
Education Week retains sole editorial
control over the content of this coverage.

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EDUCATION WEEK | September 6, 2017 | www.edweek.org | 11


http://www.joycefdn.org/Programs/Education http://www.nctm.org/backtoschool http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 6, 2017

Education Week - September 6, 2017
Teachers Carve Out a Place in the Curriculum For LGBT History
Learning to Teach Via Virtual Reality
Rule Targets District Bias In Spec. Ed.
Hurricane Takes Heavy Toll on Schools
Report Roundup
News in Brief
State Educational-Leadership Initiatives In Budget ‘Pickle’
New Tool Alerts Teachers When Students Give Up on Test
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Mobile Devices Put Education In Hands of Syrian Refugees
LGBT Curricula Spreads Slowly
Tweaking School Turnarounds
After Fierce Fight, Illinois Enacts Tax-Credit Scholarship Program
President’s Youngest Son Joins Back-to-School Crowd
Sarah M. Stitzlein: How to Define Public Schooling in the Age of Choice?
Q&A With Jack Schneider: What Makes a School Good? It’s More Than Test Scores
READERS REACT: Have SAT Accommodations Really Gone Too Far?
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Chris Elmendorf & Darien Shanske: We Need Better Education Data
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Hurricane Takes Heavy Toll on Schools
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 2
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 3
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 5
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - State Educational-Leadership Initiatives In Budget ‘Pickle’
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - New Tool Alerts Teachers When Students Give Up on Test
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Mobile Devices Put Education In Hands of Syrian Refugees
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 9
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 10
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 11
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 12
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 13
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - LGBT Curricula Spreads Slowly
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 15
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - After Fierce Fight, Illinois Enacts Tax-Credit Scholarship Program
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - President’s Youngest Son Joins Back-to-School Crowd
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Sarah M. Stitzlein: How to Define Public Schooling in the Age of Choice?
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Q&A With Jack Schneider: What Makes a School Good? It’s More Than Test Scores
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 21
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - 23
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - Chris Elmendorf & Darien Shanske: We Need Better Education Data
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - September 6, 2017 - CW4
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