Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 28

OPINION

INSIDE

23

24

25

The Challenges Ahead
for Advanced Placement

School Leaders:
Avoid This Move

Letters to
the Editor

'You Skipped a Step'
Educators, start asking better questions

O

ne of the most important lessons
I've learned in my career is that
the best way to respond to a
question is not always to offer an
answer. Sometimes one should
linger on the question itself,
asking what assumptions it conceals and what other questions it displaces. Many questions
in education, for example, take for granted the inevitability
of traditional practices. That means our job is to challenge
the question's hidden premises. "Wait," we might say."You
skipped a step."
Here are five such questions from a virtually unlimited
list:

By Alfie Kohn
KOHN, who
frequently speaks
to and works
with educators, is
the author of 14
books, including
The Schools Our
Children Deserve
(Houghton Mifflin,
1999). His website is
www.alfiekohn.org.

1. Should grades be "standards based?" Should
they be posted online? To what extent should they
be based on tests/homework/class participation?
You skipped a step. Multiple studies have found that
students who get letter or number grades-particularly
those who have been led to focus on improving those
grades-become less interested in learning, tend to
think less deeply, and prefer the easiest possible task, as
compared with students who are not graded (but may
receive informational feedback when needed).
The question, then, isn't how to grade but how to stop
grading. Fortunately, more teachers are doing just that
in order to create classrooms that help students of all
backgrounds and ability levels become more focused
on (and excited about) the learning itself. Even when
administrators still demand a final course grade, these
teachers never put a letter or number on any individual
assignment. And some let their students decide on their
own final grade.

2. How can we improve the quality of the
curriculum?
You skipped a big step by assuming we should be doing
this for students rather than with them. The latter requires
not only relinquishing some control but learning more
about students' interests and how to involve them in
figuring out which topics to pursue and how best to do so.
The same is true of solving tricky discipline problems, or
deciding how to arrange and decorate the classroom. A
teacher who simply wonders whether (or when or how)
to do x isn't asking the far more consequential question:
Must such matters really be decided unilaterally by the
adult and imposed on students?
By the same token, if an administrator mulls what
speaker or consultant to hire for a professionaldevelopment session, he or she has skipped asking the
question, "Shouldn't the teachers be deciding this?"

"

That means our job is to
challenge the question's
hidden premises."
3. Are we assigning the right amount of
homework? Are parents helping their kids too
much (or too little) with these assignments?
You skipped right over asking why we should force

kids to work what amounts to a second shift after getting
home from a full day of school, particularly when there's
no evidence that any kind of homework is beneficial for
younger students. (Indeed, recent research casts doubt on
its necessity even in high school.) I have heard from many
teachers who have eliminated all homework, and they all
report fabulous results, with students experiencing less
stress and greater interest in learning without sacrificing
achievement. To focus on the quantity, or even the
quality, of something is to discourage questions about
whether it needs to be done at all. This is especially
unfortunate when that something may be the greatest
extinguisher of curiosity ever devised.
4. Are we making progress at closing the
achievement gap?
Wait-how are you defining achievement? If you
skipped that step, it will probably be defined by default
as raising standardized test scores. Unfortunately, tests
measure what matters least, intellectually speaking. They
mostly reflect two things: the size of the houses near a
school and how much time has been set aside to train
students to be better test-takers. It is common for a rise
in test scores to accompany (indeed, to contribute to) a
decline in the quality of teaching and learning.
Because "achievement gap" usually just means
"test score gap," attempts to narrow it often entail
transforming low-scoring schools into test-prep
factories. This may succeed in raising scores, but at a
substantial cost to the cause of genuine equity. (Much
the same is true of closing the digital gap. Greater
access to computers doesn't help-and actually may
hurt-if they're used mostly for traditional drill-and-skill
instruction.)
5. Should we praise students' ability or their
effort?
Too often we fail to ask why praising children for
anything-offering a verbal doggie biscuit for pleasing
the adult-is necessary or constructive. Regardless of
one's criteria (ability or effort), praise is often construed
by the recipient as manipulative. A substantial research
literature has shown that people typically end up less
interested in whatever they were rewarded or praised
for doing because now their primary goal is to get the
reward or praise. The most salient feature of a positive
judgment is not that it's positive, but that it's a judgment;
it's less about feedback (which is purely informational) or
encouragement than about evaluation.
Get the idea? To ask how we can motivate our students
is to skip the step of distinguishing between intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation-which is critical because the latter
tends to undermine the former. To ask who should get
into the gifted or honors program is to ignore whether
segregating kids by alleged ability makes sense in the
first place. To ask which admissions criteria best predict
success is to blow past the question of whether selective
schools should be looking for students who are easiest to
educate rather than those who most need what they have
to offer. And so on.
In general, we should pause to consider why we're
doing what we're doing, whether it's necessary or
desirable, rather than prematurely focusing on the
details of implementation. That way, even if we decide to
continue with the status quo, at least we've grappled with
the most meaningful questions. n

Aynklo for Education Week

28 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 4 , 2019 | www.edweek.org/go/opinion


http://www.alfiekohn.org http://www.edweek.org/go/opinion

Education Week - September 4, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 4, 2019

Education Week - September 4, 2019
Quality counts: Grading The States
Open-Source Science Curriculum Makes Debut
Are Schools Required To Be Trauma-Sensitive?
Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Briefly Stated
In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Teacher-Drivers Keep Wheels On the Bus Going Round
What the Research Says
What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What the Research Says
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 8
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 9
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 10
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 11
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 12
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 13
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 14
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 15
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 16
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 17
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 18
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 19
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 20
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 21
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 22
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 26
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW4
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