Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 19

faces historic and ongoing discrimination, including the BIE chronically underfunding the school to
the point that it sometimes closed or went without
enough teachers for extended periods. Stephen, who
was identified as having ADHD, was often sent home
from school because there were no mental-health or
special education supports.
"District leaders need to take stock of their current
use of resources-both time and money," said Ford,
one of the lawyers who filed the lawsuit on behalf of
the Havasupai students. "What routine approaches
toward students are counterproductive or actively
harmful? For example, how much time and money is
being spent on punitive discipline, law-enforcement
activities, restraint, and seclusion? Can existing resources be redirected in ways that help students?"
If successful, the lawsuits in Compton and the
Havasupai reservation could set a precedent requiring schools to provide education accommodations
and supports for students with a history of trauma.

From Lawsuit to Teamwork
Joseph Erardi, who was superintendent of the
Newtown, Conn., school district after the fatal
mass shooting there in 2012 and now consults and
trains district leaders in safety and trauma-sensitive schooling for the School Superintendents Association, said the lawsuits reinforce the need for district leaders to work closely with parents and their
communities when developing trauma-informed
practices at school.
"School boards and school leaders are really taking as deep a dive as they can at trying to first understand the trauma piece and then trying to find partnership with parents and community. And that's the
key: You can't do this alone," he said. "If parents felt
that they needed to litigate to get what their child

needs, I would question the school district, when
did their partnership break down?"
"It's all about sensitivity to what the young person
is experiencing and awareness that trauma turns off
the learning switch in the brain," said Mark Rosenbaum of the Los Angeles firm Public Counsel, one of
the lawyers who brought the suit against the Compton district in 2015.
Rodney Curry, a 19-year veteran teacher at Peter's
Dominguez High School in Compton, joined that
lawsuit with two other teachers. Curry said dozens
of his students have died from violence, and students
frequently come to him for help with trauma, but he
had received no training on how to respond.
"Suspending or expelling a kid because they are ineffectively crying out for help communicates to that
student that he or she doesn't deserve to be helped or
understood," Curry said in the lawsuit.
The Compton lawsuit has been on hold since 2016,
as the district and the plaintiffs' lawyers planned
ways to address trauma in schools. Teachers now get
training on trauma-informed practices.
The district is also setting up wellness centers in
secondary schools to provide mental- and physicalhealth care to students.

Changes in Compton
After a discipline analysis showed rising suspension rates, particularly for students with disabilities
and black or Native American students, the district
also reviewed its discipline programs and is implementing restorative-justice programs at several
schools. School security staff also have been trained
in trauma-informed responses, including ways to
calm students having emotional outbursts.
"The districtwide recognition is that learning
cannot result unless the social-emotional needs

of students and teachers are identified and nurtured," Rosenbaum said.
Lystrup of the National Center for Youth Law
called the Compton suit "novel and groundbreaking," but she also noted its mixed reception from
special education advocates. Some have warned
that the way the suit frames trauma may stigmatize
students in highly disadvantaged communities such
as Compton, where nearly 1 in 4 children under 18
live in poverty.
"There's concern that this is saying all of the students in Compton were more likely to experience
trauma and so, kind of labeling all students in Compton Unified as disabled, potentially risking reinforcing negative stereotypes about race and disability,"
Lystrup said.
Others hope the lawsuits will raise awareness of
trauma-sensitive practices among administrators,
teachers, and even students.
This spring, the Compton district partnered with
Yetunde Price Resource Center, a charity founded
by tennis stars Serena Williams and Venus Williams,
and the Carrot Group, a technology nonprofit, to hold
an "innovation challenge" in which teams of middle
and high school students proposed science and technology-related supports to help those dealing with
post-traumatic stress disorder.
The winning team, which designed an artificial
intelligence app to help teenagers monitor and address their own stress reactions, came from one
of the schools that first sparked Peter's lawsuit,
Dominguez High.

ABOUT THIS SERIES
This installment is the second
in a series of articles exploring
how schools are learning to
recognize and respond to
students experiencing stress,
whether their trauma stems
from a sudden disaster or a
long-term hardship like
poverty or abuse.
THIS WEEK:
This installment looks at how
ongoing lawsuits may change
how schools think about the
intersection of trauma and
special education.
COMING WEEKS:
Look for articles on how
teachers deal with the
secondary effects of the
trauma their students
experience.
> Read more about
trauma-sensitive schools at

www.edweek.org/go/
trauma

Coverage of whole-child approaches to learning
is supported in part by a grant from the Chan
Zuckerberg Initiative, at chanzuckerberg.com.
Education Week retains sole editorial control over
the content of this coverage.

THE CASE
FOR
INVESTING
IN
PRINCIPALS
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Groundbreaking study finds that Principal Pipelines - comprehensive efforts to
improve school leadership - can benefit districts, schools and students.
Find it at www.wallacefoundation.org/principalpipelines

EDUCATION WEEK | September 4, 2019 | www.edweek.org | 19


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Education Week - September 4, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 4, 2019

Education Week - September 4, 2019
Quality counts: Grading The States
Open-Source Science Curriculum Makes Debut
Are Schools Required To Be Trauma-Sensitive?
Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Briefly Stated
In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Teacher-Drivers Keep Wheels On the Bus Going Round
What the Research Says
What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What the Research Says
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 8
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 9
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 10
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 11
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 12
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 13
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 14
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 15
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 16
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 17
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 18
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 19
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 20
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 21
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 22
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 26
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW4
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