Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 18

| BUILDING A TRAUMA-SENSITIVE SCHOOL
Trauma and
Disabilities
Three active lawsuits question
how schools should deal with
disabilities related to trauma:
CASE: P.P. et. al. v. Compton

Unified School District
ISSUES: Should repeated
exposure to trauma be regarded
as a disability qualifying a student
for supports under Title II of the
Americans with Disabilities Act and
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act? Must districts serving student
populations with widespread
exposure to trauma provide
Photo courtesy of Legal Services NYC

schoolwide supports?
STATUS: A U.S. District Court judge
denied the school district's motion
to dismiss the case, acknowledging
that the plaintiffs might be able to
show repeated trauma may cause
physical or mental disabilities that
could entitle a student to special
education services. The two sides
have been in settlement talks as
the district implements traumainformed practices.

CASE: Stephen C. v. Bureau

of Indian Education
ISSUES: Can repeated exposure
to personal trauma and historic
trauma in a community lead to
disabilities? What is the BIE's
responsibility to provide adequate
resources for special education
and student mental-health
services in tribal schools?
STATUS: In March 2018, a U.S.
District Court judge denied the
Department of Justice's motion
to partially dismiss the case. As
in the Compton, Calif., case, the
judge found the plaintiffs might
be able to show that complex
trauma and adversity could lead to
a disability. Both sides have moved
for a partial summary judgment,
but the judge hasn't ruled on that
motion yet. While settlement talks
go on, the case has continued to
move toward trial.

New York Assemblywoman Latoya Joyner speaks at a meeting on the lawsuit in New York City that argues schools failed to adequately respond to trauma.

Lawsuits Press
For Sensitivity
To Student Stress
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

trauma significantly increases children's risks of later
mental- and physical-health disorders, poor academic
progress and behavior in school, and other problems.
"The trauma isn't about an event that happened;
it's about what the impact is," said Susan Cole, the
director of the Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative, a joint program of Massachusetts Advocates
for Children and Harvard Law School. "Bad things
happen all the time that are traumatizing. It doesn't
necessarily mean a student becomes disabled."
Rather, traumatic experiences can trigger neurological stress responses-often called "fight, flight,
or freeze"-and "if the child isn't buffered and helped
to overcome these stresses, they can grow into disabilities," Cole said.

Misdiagnosis Is Common
CASE: Jane Doe, et. al. v. New York

City Department of Education
ISSUES: Does failing to respond
to trauma from sexual assault or
harassment deny students equal
access to education opportunities
and special education supports?
STATUS: The complaint was filed
in May; the district has received an
extension on providing a response.

Multimedia: Compton
students describe their
traumas on video.

> www.edweek.org/go/
trauma-Compton

In New York City, attorneys representing Maria
and three other middle and high school girls argue
that special education teams have a responsibility to
be part of that buffering system. The girls already had
been identified for special education when they reported experiencing sexual harassment and assaults.
"All four of our plaintiffs were suffering from sleeplessness, difficulty paying attention in class, emotional changes, behavioral changes, having a hard
time completing assignments in a timely manner,"
said Amy Leipziger, a senior staff attorney at Queens
Legal Services, who filed a lawsuit against the school
district on behalf of the students this summer. "They
were frequently running into their assailants or harassers, and there was that constant retriggering of
the trauma. ... It was making it very difficult for them
to be like, 'Here's the person who raped me, and now
I've got to go to class to take a math test.' "
The lawsuit alleges the students' IEP teams refused
to discuss the girls' increased academic and emo-

18 | EDUCATION WEEK | September 4, 2019 | www.edweek.org

tional difficulties in the context of those experiences
and, for some likened their symptoms to attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorders.
That's not uncommon, says a report by the nonprofit Child Mind Institute, which studies child mental health. It found ADHD is one of the most common misdiagnoses for post-traumatic stress.
"Symptoms common in PTSD, such as difficulty
concentrating, exaggerated startle response, and hypervigilance, can make it seem like a child is jumpy
and spacy," Jamie Howard, the director of the institute's Trauma Response and Education Service, concluded in the report.

"

When schools fail to invest
in the resources needed
to support students with
complex trauma, teachers
are less able to teach
students, and students
are less able to learn."
TARA FORD
Clinical Supervising Attorney
Stanford University Law School's Youth
and Education Law Project

Maria Doe was identified as having a learning disability before she started to experience sexual harassment but has since been diagnosed with anxiety
issues. After her grades began to fall, she spent the
last four months of the last school year at home.
"My math got better, my grades got better, too,
being home-schooled, so I guess that was better," she
said in an interview. "There's nobody here to harass
me or bother me or say derogatory things to me. And
I'm one-on-one with someone."

She will return to regular classes this year, though
she has requested a safety transfer from the school
her harassers attend. As a result of the lawsuit, Maria
said she hoped school and district leaders would become more responsive to signs or reports of students
experiencing trauma. "Take everything as serious
and investigate more," she said.

Historic Trauma?
The two other lawsuits, in California and Arizona,
argue that chronic and pervasive trauma doesn't just
complicate disabilities but also may qualify as a disability status on its own.
"This is not just a legal requirement" to provide
special education services, said Tara Ford, a clinical
supervising attorney at Stanford Law School's Youth
and Education Law Project, who is helping to represent Stephen and other Havasupai students. "When
schools fail to invest in the resources needed to support students with complex trauma, teachers are less
able to teach students, and students are less able to
learn."
Under Section 504 of the federal Rehabilitation
Act, students are entitled to accommodations for a
disability that "impairs a major life function." Likewise, the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act requires schools to plan supports and monitor
progress of students whose disabilities impede their
learning.
"I think most administrators and teachers are trying to do the right thing by kids with the resources
they have, but they don't always succeed," said Daniel Losen, the director of the Center for Civil Rights
Remedies at the University of California, Los Angeles, Civil Rights Project. "There are misguided
reasons for all kinds of policies and practices, ... and
also inequities and unintentional racial bias still affect their perceptions and then their responses to kids
and their families."
The American School Counselor Association
found children's exposure to widespread racial or
cultural discrimination can create or aggravate traumatic stress. At Havasupai Elementary, a Bureau of
Indian Education school on the Havasupai reservation, for example, lawyers for Stephen and eight other
students allege, in addition to students' personal
traumatic experiences, that the tribal community


http://www.edweek.org/go/trauma-compton http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - September 4, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - September 4, 2019

Education Week - September 4, 2019
Quality counts: Grading The States
Open-Source Science Curriculum Makes Debut
Are Schools Required To Be Trauma-Sensitive?
Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Briefly Stated
In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Teacher-Drivers Keep Wheels On the Bus Going Round
What the Research Says
What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Google Tool Fuels Debate About Teaching Writing
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - In Battle Against Bullies, Schools Target Parents
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What the Research Says
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - What Are Threat Assessments And How Do Schools Use Them?
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 8
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 9
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 10
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 11
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 12
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 13
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 14
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 15
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 16
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 17
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 18
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 19
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 20
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 21
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 22
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - The Challenges Ahead For Advanced Placement
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - School Leaders: Avoid This Move
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - 26
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - You Skipped a Step’
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CA4
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW3
Education Week - September 4, 2019 - CW4
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