Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 8

ACT Scores Dip as Participation Swells By Liana Heitin Average ACT scores have taken a dip, in part because the number of students taking the college-readiness exam rose significantly this year, according to a new report from the Iowa City, Iowa-based testing company. The decline in scores is not unexpected, say company representatives, because more states have begun requiring all 11th graders to take the test-so an increasingly diverse group of students is now receiving results. "When you go from a self-selected to a [fully] tested population, you're likely adding less academically able students," said Paul Weeks, the company's senior vice president for client services. "When you look at the impact, it's pulling scores down a little bit." The score decline is also not as sharp as it could have been, some said. The average composite score went from 21 in 2015 to 20.8 in 2016 (on a scale of 1 to 36). That's a slight but statistically significant drop. "For an individual tester, even a full 1-point difference on a test could be the kid next to you has a cold and distracted you-it's statistical noise, within the standard error of measurement," said Adam Ingersoll, the founder and principal of Compass Education Group, a tutoring and test-preparation company. "But with national populations, almost any tick has some meaning." Sixty-four percent of 2016's graduating seniors-or about 2.1 million students-took the college-readiness exam, up from 59 percent in 2015. The ACT has had more test-takers than the SAT, its main competitor, since 2011. (The trend is expected to continue when results from the 2016 SAT are out next month.) The percentage of students meeting the college-readiness benchmarks, which ACT says indicates a student has about a 50 percent chance of earning at least a B in a first-year college course, went down in all four subject areas-English, reading, math, and science. The biggest drop was in English, in which 61 percent of students met the benchmark, down from 64 percent a year ago. In 2015, 31 percent of students did not meet the college-readiness benchmarks in any of the four subject areas. That percentage is now up to 34. Seven more states-Alaska, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, South Carolina, and Wisconsin-began requiring all 11th graders to take the test for the first time in this report, according to the ACT, bringing the total of fully tested states up to 20. (Some states are now using the test in place of other exams aligned to the Common Core State Standards.) In all those new states, average composite scores declined. Weeks says an initial drop in scores is typical when a state goes to a fully tested population. "But then we see a gradual return," he said, pointing to Kentucky, where scores started to rebound after a few years of testing all students. In another 22 states, composite scores increased this year compared with 2015. Achievement Gaps Remain Changing Pool Ingersoll said it's important to remember that the changes in results don't actually indicate much about how students and schools are doing nationally. "The pool of testers is changing so radically," he said. "You'd need to have consecutive years with the [demographic] pool staying the same before you can draw conclusions." Even then, he added, it would be tough to pinpoint causes. Among black students, performance has been relatively flat over the past five years, while the number of students tested has gone up. For Hispanic students, average scores have dropped slightly-by one-fifth of a point-over the same time period, while the number of test-takers has risen dramatically, by 44 percent. "Given that expansion of the testing pool often leads to substantial drops in scores, these trends repre- By Sarah D. Sparks Academic gaps between the wealthiest and poorest students tend to narrow from fall to spring of kindergarten year. But in 2010, income-related gaps started smaller and narrowed more than in 1998. 2010 Wealthy/Poor Gap 1.4 Math Achievement Gap (Standard Deviations) 1.2 1.0 .8 .6 .4 .2 0 Fall 2 Million 21.1 20.9 21.0 21.0 20.8 2015 2016 Composite Average ACT Scores 1 Million Number of Students Tested 0 2012 2013 2014 SOURCE: ACT, Inc. sent distinct success stories," says the ACT report. And because of the increased numbers of test-takers, thousands more black and Hispanic students are being identified as ready for college-level coursework than have been previously, it says. But major achievement gaps remain between African-American and Hispanic students and their white and Asian counterparts. Just 11 percent of African-American students and 23 percent of Hispanic students met collegereadiness benchmarks in three or four subjects this year. For white students, about half met the benchmarks. In addition, the report found that disparities between high- and lowincome students may be growing. Over the past three years, composite scores for students with a family income of $80,000 or higher increased, while scores dropped for students with family incomes below that. Visit the CURRICULUM MATTERS blog, which tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/blogs Are Poor Students More Ready for Kindergarten? SHRINKING GAPS 1998 CHANGES IN SCORES VS. NUMBERS OF TEST-TAKERS Spring SOURCE: "Recent Trends in Income, Racial, and Ethnic School Readiness Gaps at Kindergarten Entry," AERA Open For decades, as wealthy parents invested more and more time and money on enrichment for their young children, students in poverty fell further and further behind. New research, however, suggests that the trend is changing: The children starting their first days of kindergarten may arrive better prepared than prior generations-and students in poverty will arrive at less of a disadvantage compared with their wealthier peers. Income and racial gaps in school readiness closed significantly between 1998 and 2010, according to studies in a special issue of AERA Open, a journal of the American Educational Research Association. Researchers Sean F. Reardon of Stanford University and Ximena A. Portilla of the research firm MDRC compared data for nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 children who started kindergarten in 1998, 2006, and 2010. They found that during that period, children from both the poorest 10 percent of families and those from the wealthiest 10 percent of families improved in early-reading and -math assessments-but students in poverty made larger improvements. As a result, poor students closed academic gaps with wealthy peers by 10 percent in early math and 16 percent in early reading. "I think what's surprising is that the income gap has narrowed ... when some of the underlying conditions-growing income equality and residential segregation-have continued unabated," Reardon said. Racial gaps also narrowed during the same time. Hispanic students reduced their readiness gap with white students by 14 percent. 8 | EDUCATION WEEK | August 31, 2016 | www.edweek.org The school-readiness gap between black and white students also stopped widening, though the study was not able to determine whether it had closed significantly. However, the students' teachers reported 30 percent smaller gaps between black and white students on measures of students' self-control and positive approaches to learning. Poor students kept their gains at least through 4th grade, according to reading and math results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, but the gaps did not continue to close after children entered school, Reardon noted. The closing academic gaps, he said, are "not because schools are getting more equal, but because something in early childhood is becoming more equal," Reardon said. "It would be great if you could have both, but we do have one." That equalizer appears to be parents themselves, Reardon and his colleagues found. Rising Parent Involvement From the national Reading is Fundamental push to the First Five California effort, public-awareness campaigns in the past decade have focused on teaching parents and earlychildhood educators about evolving research on how very young children learn. "In general, what we're learning is parents are getting the message that these early years are important," said Rebecca Parlakian, the senior director of programs at Zero to Three, a nonprofit early-education-advocacy group, who was not associated with the studies. "I see it as a positive sign." Young children in general-and poor children in particular-are getting more enrich- ing attention from their parents and using a wider array of free educational resources, finds a related study in the same issue. Daphna Bassok, an associate professor at the University of Virginia's Curry School of Education, and her colleagues tracked the home and school experiences in the same group of children that Reardon studied, participants in several long-term federal education surveys. "Parental investments have gone up quite a bit," Bassok said. "Parents are more likely to report reading to their kids, playing with their kids, taking them on outings to the library or the zoo." Low-income parents were about twice as likely in 2010 as in 1998 to say their preschoolers used computers for learning and to access the internet. That could be a sign that the "digital divide" caused by earlier use of technology among wealthier families is starting to equalize, Reardon said. Bassok noted that a growing number of free computer applications and public-television children's shows, such as the Ready to Learn initiative, are used by parents at all income levels. The gaps remain daunting in spite of the progress. "We also have to remember: What it means to be prepared for school is a moving target," Parlakian said. "Would I have been prepared for kindergarten today? No. Because the expectations for kindergarten have changed dramatically." School readiness gaps between poor and wealthy students closed only about half as quickly as they opened in the 1970s and 1980s. If they continue to close at the current rate, it could be another century before poor and wealthy students start school equally prepared. http://www.edweek.org/blogs http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - August 31, 2016

Education Week - August 31, 2016
Contents
Calls to Halt Charters Stir Friction
Head Start Benefits Underscored
Efforts to Boost Teacher Diversity Seen Falling Short
Digital Directions: 1-to-1 Computing Under Microscope in Maine Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Back to School: Taking the Public’s Pulse
U.S. State Department Tackles Gender Gap in Stem Participation
Act Scores Dip as Participation Swells
Are Poor Students More Ready for Kindergarten?
Teacher-Tenure Battles Continue After Vergara
Judge Blocks Guidance on Transgender Rights
Reading the Tea Leaves in Advance of Essa Funding Rules
Q&A: With Christopher Emdin
Q&A: Talking K-12 With a Force in the House Gop
Howard Fuller: The Naacp Has It Wrong
Milton Chen & Jonathan B. Jarvis: 100 Years Old, Our National Parks Are the Best Outdoor Classrooms
Letters
Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
David E. Dematthews: The Principal as Community Advocate
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Digital Directions: 1-to-1 Computing Under Microscope in Maine Schools
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 2
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 3
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Back to School: Taking the Public’s Pulse
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - U.S. State Department Tackles Gender Gap in Stem Participation
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Are Poor Students More Ready for Kindergarten?
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Teacher-Tenure Battles Continue After Vergara
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 10
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 11
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 12
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 13
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 14
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 15
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Reading the Tea Leaves in Advance of Essa Funding Rules
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Q&A: Talking K-12 With a Force in the House Gop
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Howard Fuller: The Naacp Has It Wrong
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Milton Chen & Jonathan B. Jarvis: 100 Years Old, Our National Parks Are the Best Outdoor Classrooms
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 20
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - Topschooljobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - 23
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - David E. Dematthews: The Principal as Community Advocate
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - August 31, 2016 - CT4
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